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Pork tapeworm larvae produce this infection. Of all the worms that leads to brain infections, the pork tapeworm causes by far the most extensive cases of brain infections within Western Hemisphere.
After people eat food tainted with the tapeworm’s eggs, excretions in the stomach induce the eggs to hatch into larvae. The larvae enter the bloodstream and are scattered to all sections of the body, including the brain. The larvae form cysts (clusters of larvae contained in a protective wall). (The infection created by cysts is called cysticercosis or, neurocysticercosis when the cysts develop in the brain.) These cysts cause few symptoms until the cysts deteriorate and the larvae dissolve, triggering soreness, inflammation, and symptoms such as seizures, headaches, personality changes, and mental impairment.
Sometimes the cysts block the flow of cerebrospinal fluid within the spaces of the brain (ventricles) putting pressure on the brain. This disorder is known as hydrocephalus. The increased demand can cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, and sleepiness.
Cysts may break and lose their contents into the cerebrospinal fluid, causing meningitis.
Doctors suspect neurocysticercosis in individuals who live in or have come from developing countries and who have characteristic symptoms. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can often show the cysts. However spinal tap (lumbar puncture) to obtain a sample of cerebrospinal fluid and blood tests are often required to confirm the diagnosis.
The infection is managed with albendazole or praziquantel (drugs used to treat parasitic worm infections, designated antihelminthic drugs). Corticosteroids are given to decrease the inflammation that occurs as the larvae die. Seizures are treated with anticonvulsants.
Occasionally, surgery is required to implement a drain (shunt) to release the excess cerebrospinal fluid and decrease the hydrocephalus. The shunt is a piece of molded synthetic tubing positioned in the spaces within the brain. The tubing is run underneath the skin, generally to the abdomen, where additional fluid can drain. An operation to remove cysts from the brain may also be required.
Parasitic worms (helminths) infect the CNS of millions of people in developing countries. Immigrate infected people attending non-endemic areas or there, incl. The USA can imagine there with these infections. The worms can cause meningitis, encephalitis, cerebral lesions, hydrocephalus, stroke, and myelopathy. Neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) infection and cysticercosis: cysticercosis.) Of the 20 or helminths that can cause neurological disorders, the pork tapeworm Taenia solium is responsible in the Western Hemisphere by far for most cases. The associated disease is neurocysticercosis. After a person has received contaminated food with worm eggs, the larvae migrate into the tissue, incl. Brain, spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid space, where they form cysts. The cyst diameter rarely exceeds 1 cm in Nervenparenchym, in the liquor, they can be cm but larger than the fifth.
The cysts in the brain parenchyma call as long produce few symptoms until the death of the worms triggers local inflammation, gliosis, and edema, which in turn causes seizures (the most common), cognitive or focal neurological deficits, or personality changes. Larger cysts in the CSF spaces can cause an occlusive. The cysts can rupture into the subarachnoid space and lead to an acute or subacute eosinophilic meningitis.
The mortality rate of symptomatic neurocysticercosis is as high up to 50% of cases, A neurocysticercosis infection is considered in patients who come from developing countries and have eosinophilic meningitis or unexplained seizures, cognitive or focal deficits, or personality changes. Many calcified cystic lesions speak in CT or MRI for the diagnosis; Contrast media can highlight the lesions more clearly. Diagnosis requires serological examining serum and CSF and occasionally the biopsy of a cyst. Neurocysticercosis