The trachea, commonly referred to the windpipe, is the windpipe, are the connecting the voice box and the lungs. When this airway narrows or contracts, the condition is known as tracheal stenosis, which restricts the ability to breathe normally.
There are two classes of this condition.
Acquired – produced by an injury or illness after birth
Congenital – present at birth
Most of the cases of bacterial stenosis a from the result of prolonged breathing assistance known as intubation or from a surgical tracheostomy.
The symptoms of tracheal stenosis are comparable to those of other conditions, so it is important to see the physician, particular if the patient has undergone an injury to the throat. This is in addition to a sense of fatigue or a general feeling unwell (malaise) the symptoms of tracheal stenosis. These symptoms are typically the following.:
- Wheezing coughing or brevity of breath, including difficulty breathing.
- A high pitch squeal is arising from your lungs when inhaling.
- Frequent periods of pneumonia or upper respiratory infections
- Chest congestion
- Asthma that does not respond well to treatment
- Pauses in breathing (apnea)
- A blue color in the skin of mucus membrane of the mouth or nose.
Causes the Risk Factors
Through rare, tracheal stenosis may be present at birth. Most commonly, the condition is the result of an injury or illness such as:
An external injury to throat or chest
An autoimmune disorder such as sarcoidosis, lipomatosis. Wegener’s granulomatosis and amyloidosis.
Occasionally, tracheal stenosis may occur after radiation therapy to the neck or chest.
Tumors, malignant or benign, which press against the trachea, thereby restricting air flow.
Tracheal stenosis usually is suspected in people with risk factors presenting with signs and symptoms of airway stenosis. The condition may be future suspected based on spirometry with a flow -volume loop and calculated tomography imaging of the neck and chest, however fiberoptic bronchoscopy is needed to confirm the appearance and severity of tracheal stenosis.
Various treatment options can be utilized for tracheal stenosis and the type of therapy used will depend on the cause, location, and severity of the tracheal narrowing. Some surgeons will use minimally invasive techniques whenever possible, although even those procedures prequel comprehensive anesthesia and a hospital stay. Some treatment choices can afford immediate relief but are considered temporary solutions., while other can provide better long-term solutions.
Short-term treatment options for the conditions include widening the trachea and laser surgery. Laser surgery can remove scar tissues that cause tracheal stenosis. This treatment option can present short-term relief but usually, is not recognized as a permanent solution. For some patients, laser surgery can cause the condition to worsen. So it is essential for patients to see an expert/specialist when evaluating for treatment selections.
For some patients, the reach may be widened using a small balloon or dilator to expand the airway. This may not be a long-term solution.
Treatment options that are considered to work long term include stenting and tracheal reconstruction. Stenting involves inserting a tiny tube of metal or high-density polyethylene or polypropylene mesh inside the trachea. This tube then holds the airway open and allows the patient to breath more quickly.
Tracheobronchial Airway Stent Placement
Tracheobronchial airy stents are devices use to splint airway open. Stents are cylindrical in shape can be-be deployed by a bronchoscope. There is various material that can be used in stents with different stent haveing different diseases indications.
Why is it Used?
Airway was stented can be permanent or removable
They can be used after your pulmonary physician applies laser, balloon dilatation, electrocautery, or APC to increase the six of airway narrowing
By placing a stent, the always remain open, allowing adware airflow and the natural passage of secretions.
What Makes Tracheobronchial Stents different?
Tracheobronchial stents are unique and singular devices to the airway.
They are specialist, sometimes customized and are placed by extremely trained pulmonologists
Stents require precise care to ensure they remain open
Stents can be created from silicone (a rubbery material), metal, or a combination of metal and polyurethane (hybrid)
Benefits of Tracheobronchial Stents:
- Stents vary in rigidity
- Body of the stent assist resist compression from the airway tissues
- They allow airways to remain open and keeps the lung from becoming collapsed
Reconstitution of the trachea is an option when only a small portion of the trachea is concerned. During the procedure, this surgeon removes the damaged portion and joins the ends together.