Prostate Cancer, also called carcinoma of the prostate, is the development of cancer prostate. which ia gland i the male reproductive system. The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland that is found in men. A healthy male prostate is slight large than a walnut, with an average of about 11 grams ranging from 7-16 grams in size. Most prostate cancers grow very slowly. There are some that grow fast. The cancer cells can spread from the prostate to other body parts, mainly the bones and lymph nodes. There may be no initial symptoms. The later stages of the prostate cancer, would difficulty urinating, pain in the pelvis or back during urination, and blood in urine (hermaturia) or painful urination(dysuria). There is also benign prostatic hyperplasia that includes many of the same symptoms, due to low levels of red blood cell.
There are usually no signs or symptoms, frequent urination or noctura( increased urination at nigh) or difficult maintaining a steady stream of urine.
Prostate cancer is a adenocarcinoma, or glandular cancer. The semen producing prostate gland cells start to mutate. First small clumps of cancerous cells remain confined to normal prostate glands. This is carcinoma in stitu or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Later these cancer cells multiply and spread the surrounding prostate tissue( troma) and forming tumor. The tumor may grow large and invade other organs such as the rectum or seminal vesicles..
There are a few factors that increases the risk of Prostate cancer. These risk are older age, race and family history. 99% of cases occur in men over 50. Having a first degree relative with prostate cancer can increase your risk by two to three times. Prostate cancer is more common in African Americans than Caucasian me. Other factors can be the diet. A diet that has a high level of red meat, milk products and processed foods, or lake of vegetables can lead to higher risk. A biopsy is used to diagnose this cancer. Medical imaging is then used to see if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Complete understanding of prostate cancer is still elusive. Men under 45 are likely to to not have the disease. Obesity can elevated blood levels of testosterone can increase the risk of prostate.
There is a strong genetic connection that contribute to the risk of prostate cancer. Race, family members and gene variants are key indicator in whether a man develops prostate cancer. Men who have a brother with prostate are exposed to greater risk than those who have a father who was diagnosed with prostate.
There is some controversy related to prostate cancer screening. Prostate specific antigen or PSA test can increase cancer detection but not the end results. The United State Preventive Services Task Force recommends not using PSA testing based on risk of over diagnosis and treatment as most cancers will be asymptomatic.
Many cases can be monitored safety using active surveillance. Other treatments can include hormone, or radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Prostate cancer is curable when it is only found in the prostate. In cases where the cancer spreads to the bones, other targeted therapy such as bisphosphonates and pain medications may be required. The outcomes change depending on the age and health problems of the patient as well as how aggressive and extensive the cancer is. Most men do not die from prostate cancer the five year survival rate is 99%. Globally it is the fifth leading cause of cancer related deaths. Detection has increased significant in the developing world due to PSA testing. Males over 70 who die of unrelated disease have found prostate cancer in 30 to 70% of them.
There are several treatment options
the transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) involves moving the proste using a resectoscope( thin lighted cutting tool) and inserting it through the urethra and cutting the prostate tissue that is blocking the urethra.
Possible problems from prostate surgery can be:
- Leakage of Urine form the bladder or stool from the rectum
- Shortening of the penis, (1-2 centimeters)
- Inguinal hernal, Bulding or fat or part of the small intestines due to weaker muscles.
Radiation therapy is cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-ray or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing.
- External radiation Therapy – uses a machine outside and body send radiation toward the cancer con-formal radiation.
- Internal radiation therapy – uses a radioactive substance sealed in seeds,wires and needles.
- Alpha emitter radiation therapy – uses a radioactive substance to treat the prostate