Myalgia is muscle pain that can be localized pain muscle strain or crush injury, or generalized pained caused by an underlying disease such as a viral infection. The common type of pain is caused by overuse or injury due to strenuous activity.
Myositis consist of muscle inflammation. Myositis can lead to muscle pain, weakness, and swelling. There is also temporary myositis may be caused by over exercises or injury to the muscles, and chronic forms can emerge from viral and bacterial infections, diseases, medications, autoimmune disorders. Myositis and Myalgia are symptoms from underlying conditions. Adequate relief of myalgia and myositis needs diagnosis and therapy of the underlying condition causing these symptoms.
There are multiple diseases that can cause myositis or myalgia include viruses such as influenza, HIV, Epstein-Barr, poliomyelitis( Enterovirus) herpes simplex, and connective tissue diseases (collagen vascular diseases), including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, fibromyalgia, and polymyalgia. Myalgia may be associated with the involuntary muscles movement (spasticity) or central nervous system disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injuries. Muscle pain can come with pain such as Parkinson’s disease and myofascial pain syndrome.
Myositis and Myalgia may accompany bacterial infections such as strep throat ( Streptococcus) Lyme disease and tetanus may be accompanied by myalgia or myositis. Fungi that cause histoplasmosis and parasitics associated with malaria, toxoplasmosis and trichinosis also can create symptoms that include myalgia and myositis. Muscle pain and inflammation can be the result of a reaction from a vaccination (immunization) or medication (e.g. anticonvulsants, antibiotics, cholesterol-lowering agents, anticancer agents, diuretics); abuse of substances such as alcohol, contain, narcotics, or amphetamines; positions such as strychnine from insects, snake, spider bite, exposure to toxic chemicals and environmental factors such as ultraviolet light. Deficiencies in B-complex vitamins and vitamin C, mineral deficiencies, and electrolyte imbalances involving calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, can cause myalgia, The condition also can result from certain endocrine and metabolic disorders such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, Addison’s disease, metastatic, Diabetes Mellitus, neoplasm, diabetic neuropathy. Eosinophilia-myalgia with accompanying critical or chronic muscle pain can be an acute reaction to the ingestion of a contaminated dietary supplement known as L-tryptophan.
There are other conditions in which myalgia and/or myositis may be a present include sarcoidosis compartment syndrome; specific inherited metabolic disorders, and muscle pain with no obvious physical basis (psychogenic myalgia). Individuals diagnosed with cystitis may have underlying conditions such as pneumonia or other lung diseases.
Myositis and Myalgia Diagnosis
When getting diagnosed a complete health history will be obtained, which includes current and prior illnesses, medications, injuries. The individual should be asked whether the on some of the pain was gradual or sudden and whether symptoms are constant or intermittent. The exact location of pain or discomfort should be noted. People my report that insect bite, trauma, or drug ingestion may pain muscle pain or weakness. Individual may describe symptoms occurring virtually anywhere in the body, with pain ranging from dull or aching to cramp, discomfort including, weakness, stiffness, swelling. There are Constitutional symptoms of the underlying condition may include fever, chills, sweats and weight loss. The individual may experience neurological symptoms such as tingling (paresthesia) numbness, tremor, ringing in the ears (tinnitus)visual disturbances. Depression sleep disorders, fatigue or rash, may be analyzed. Respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal symptoms sometimes accompany myalgia and myositis.
Physical exam – A complete physical examination helps modify possible reasons for myositis and myalgia. Weakness or stiffness may be evident in persons, coordination, posture or gait. Atrophy (wasting away) hypertrophy (enlargement) or contracture permanent shorting of muscles may be evident. Muscle tone and strength are assessed through a range of motion and resistance expresses. Touching palpating during the exam may reveal tenderness or abnormal muscles tension (spasm) Joint disease can be excluded with an examination of joints for symptoms such as redness, swelling, effusion (accumulation of fluid) tendernesses that localized, higher temperatures and motion problems.
Test; Blood test detect inflammation and exclude any underlying conditions. They may include a complete blood count (CBC) and measurement of the speed of sedimentation of red blood cells (erythrocyte sedimentation rate or ESR). Various test to detect the present of specific antibodies in the blood may be needed to identify underlying diseases. The test may also be created to evaluate levels of electrolytes, hormones, and various other chemistries (calcium phosphate, serum enzymes) to help determine the presence of injury or breakdown in muscle tissues. A urine test (urinalysis ) assists in the diagnosis of muscle disorders. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) measure the electrical activity and proper functioning of muscles. Bone X-rays, CT can diagnose bone a joint disorder by indicating their difference from muscle disorders. A muscle biopsy may be required to report inherited metabolic disorder, eosinophilia-myalgia, trichinosis, connective tissue disease, sarcoidosis, and possible toxic agents. Another imaging test such as ultrasonography and MIRI can detect inflammation.
Treatment of Myalgia and Myositis
The treatment depends on the specific underlying diagnosis, nonspecific myalgia due to overexertion of systematic viral infection or immunization usually can be relieved by over-the-counter pain medication (analgesics). Other types of treatment are dependent on the underlying cause of muscle pain or inflammation. Passive stretching heat or messaging may provide temporary rebel if. Ultrasound, nerve stimulations ( transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation or TENS) and application for deeper to tender or figure points can be helpful for some type so myalgia such as fibromyalgia. Therapy of myofascial pain related to temporomandibular joint dysfunction an include the use of dental appliance fitted over the teeth such as a mouth guard. Steroids and immunosuppressive medication can be prescribed to reduce the inflammation of myositis associated with chronic diseases such as fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, or lupus erythematosus.
Myositis and Myalgia are symptoms of other underlying conditions so that the expected outcome will depend on the specific diagnosis. The acuity and effectiveness of the treatment. Nonspecific myalgia due to reversion or immunization is usually a mid occurrence. Myalgia accompanied with widespread (systemic) infection usually resolves along with the underlying condition, a myalgia after immunization of yellow fever may least 2 to 3 weeks. However treatment for chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis or diabetes may need treatment indefinitely.
Rehabilitation treatment of myalgia and myositis depends on on specifying diagnosis or cause of the present symptoms. In combination with pharmacological serves, the aim or recovery is pain control and prevent function (rider). Modalities such as heat and cold may be useful to decrease pain (Braddom). If any loss of motion or strength accompanies the painful condition, individuals may be instructed in a range of motion and strengthening exercises appropriate of involved body parts (Ahlgren).