What is Hypothyroidism ( Under-active Thyroid)?


Hypothyroidism also referred to as thyroid disease is a common disorder. With hypothyroidism, you thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.
The thyroid gland is found in the front lower part of your neck. Hormones released by the gland travel into your bloodstream and affect nearly every, path of your body, from your heart and brain, yo your muscles and skin.

The thyroid controls how your body’s cells use energy from food; a process called metabolism, Among another task, your metabolism affects your body’s temperature, your heartbeat, and how well you burn calories. If you do not have enough thyroid hormone, your body processes slow down. That means your body makes less energy and your metabolism sluggish.

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What Causes Hypothyroidism?

The most common reason of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, “Thyroiditis” is inflammation of the thyroid gland. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder. With Hashimoto’s causes the body to produce antibodies that attack and destroy the thyroid gland. A viral infection may also trigger thyroiditis.

Additional Causes of hypothyroidism include:

Radiation therapy is the neck area – Treating particular cancers such s lymphoma will require to the neck. Radiation damages the cells in the thyroid. This makes it harder for the gland to produce hormones.

Radioactive Iodine treatment – This treatment is often prescribed to people who have an overactive thyroid gland, a condition known as hyperthyroidism. Although radiation eliminates the cells in the thyroid gland, This usually leads to hypothyroidism.

Taking particular medications – Some medications to treat heart problems or psychiatric condition and can occasionally affect the production of thyroid hormone. These can include amiodarone (Cordarone), lithium, interferon alpha and interleukin-2.

Thyroid Surgery to remove the thyroid will lead to hypothyroidism, If you only part of the thyroid is removed, the reaming gland may still be able to generate enough hormone necessary for body to operate.

Too small amount of Iodine in the diet. The thyroid requires Iodine to produce thyroid hormone. Your body does not make Iodine, so you need to get it through your diet, Iodize table such is very high in Iodine. Different food sources of Iodine include shellfish, saltwater fish eggs, diary, daily products, and seaweed; Iodine deficiency is rare in the U.S

Pregnancy – The reason is not clear, but sometimes, inflammation of the thread occurs after pregnancy. This is called postpartum thyroid occurs after pregnancy; This is called postpartum thyroiditis. Women with this condition normally have a severe increase in thyroid hormone levels followed by a sharp in thyroid hormone production. Most with postpartum thyroiditis will regain their normal thyroid function.

Problems with the thyroid at birth – Some babies may be bone with a thyroid gland that not develop correctly or does not work properly. This type of hypothyroidism is called congenital hypothyroidism. Most hospitals in the U.S screen babies at birth for this disease

Pituitary gland rarely, a problem with the pituitary gland can conflict with the growth of thyroid home. The pituitary gland makes a hormone, called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which tell s your thyroid how much hormone it should make and release.

Disorder of the hypothalamus- An extremely rare form of hypothyroidism can occur if the hypothalamus in the brain does do not create enough of the TRH hormone. TRH affects the release of TSH from the Pituitary gland.

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Primary hypothyroidism is produced by problems with the thyroid gland itself.
Secondary hypothyroidism occurs when another problem interferes with the thyroid’s ability to produce forms. For example, the pituitary gland and hypothalamus produce hormones that trigger the release of thyroid hormone. A problem with one the glands can make your thyroid underactive.

On occasions un underactive thyroid that results from a problem with the hypothyroid is called

Risk of hypothyroidism

Women, especially older women have a higher risk of developing hypothyroidism than men. You are more likely to develop hypothesis if a member of your family has an autoimmune disease. There are other risks such as:

  • Race ( Caucasian or Asian)
  • Premature graying of the hair
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Turner Syndrome
  • Down Syndrome
  • Autoimmune disorders such as Addison’s disease, celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, anemia, vitiligo, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis

Symptoms of hypothyroidism:
There are several symptom of hypothyroidism that can be unclear or mimic other conditions.

  • Fatigue
  • Slow Heart Rate
  • Constipation
  • Depression
  • Change in Menstrual Cycle
  • Dry Hair and hair loss
  • Dry Skin
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Swelling of the thyroid gland (goiter)
  • Unexplained weight gain and difficulty losing weight
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Increase Sensitivity to coldness

Babies with hypothyroidism may have any symptoms. However if symptoms do occur, they can include:

  • Constipation
  • Excessive sleepiness
  • Little or no growth
  • Persistent jaundice ( yellowing of the skin and white of the eyes)
  • Poor feeding habits
  • Cold hands and fit
  • Stomach bloating
  • Puffy face
  • Swollen tongue
  • Hoarse Cry
  • Low Muscle tone

You should contact your doctor if you or child have nay of these symptoms. It is quite possible that these symptoms can be caused by other medication conditions.

Diagnosing Hypothyroidism

If you have had symptoms of hypothyroidism, your doctor may order a blood test to check hormone levels. These test may include:

  • Thyroid -stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • T4 (thyroxine)

Lower-than- normal T4 levels usually mean you have hypothyroidism. However, some people may have increased TSH levels while having normal T4 Levels. This is referred to as subclinical or mild Hypothyroidism. It is an early seating of hypothyroidism.

If your test result of physical exam of the thyroid is abnormal, you doctor may recommend a thyroid ultrasound or thyroid scan, to check for nodules of inflammation.

Hypothyroidism Treatment

If you have hypothyroidism, you doctor may prescribe synthetic thyroid hormone T4, which is man made. You would take this pill on a daily basis. Depending on the medications you take, they can interfere with how the body absorbs synthetic thyroid hormone. You should inform your doctor of all the medicines, supplements, and herbs that you take, including over the counter medications.

You will need to have a routine blood test to check your thyroid hormone levels. Your doctor may need to adjust your medication dose over time.

Complications of hypothyroidism

  • Heart problems
  • Infertility
  • Obesity
  • Joint Pain

Thyroid problems sin a pregnant woman can affect the developing baby. During the first three months of pregnancy, the baby receives all thro DUI hormone from it, mother. If the mother has hypthodim., the baby does not get enough thyroid hormones. This can lead to problems with mental development.

Very low levels of thyroid hormone can cause a life-threatening condition called myxedema. Myxedema is considered the most severe form of hypothyroidism. An individual with myxedema can lose consciousness or go into a comatose state. The condition can be caused by body temperature to drop extremely low, resulting in death.