Avascular Necrosis (AVN) also called osteonecrosis Ischemic bone necrosis, or aseptic necrosis is a condition that occurs when there is loss blood to the bone. The bone is a living tissue that requires blood and-and interruption in the blood supply can cause bone death. If this does not stop bone necrosis will eventually lead to bone collapse.
Avascular necrosis most often most often occur in the upper leg. Another commons sites are the upper arm, ankles, knees, and shoulder.
Who gets Avascular Necrosis and What Causes Avascular Necrosis
Nearly 20,000 people develop AVN each year. Most are between the ages of 20 and 50. For healthy people the risk AVN is small. Most cases are the result of an underlying health problem or injury. Possible causes included.
Dislocation of fracture of the thigh bone (femur). This type of injury can affect the blood supply to the bone, leading to trauma, -related avascular necrosis. AVN may occur in 20% or more of people who dislocate their hip.
Chronic corticosteroid use. Long-term use of this inflammation-fighting drugs, either orally or intravenously, is associated with 35% of all a case for non-traumatic AVN. While the reason for this is not entirely understood, experts speculate these medications may interfere with the body’s capability to break down fatty substances. These materials collect in the blood vessels, making them narrower and decrease the amount of blood to the bone.
Excessive alcohol use, Much like corticosteroids, excessive alcohol may cause fatty substances to build in the blood vessels and decrease the blood supply to the bones.
Other conditions associated with not traumatic AVN include:
- Sickle cell disease
- HIV infection
- Radiation therapy, chemotherapy
- Decompression illness, a condition that occurs when the body is subjected to an immediate decline in surrounding pressure, producing the formation of gas bubbles in the blood
- Gaucher’s disease, an inherited metabolic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance accumulate in the organs
Pancreatitis, inflammation of the pancreas.
Symptoms of Avascular Necrosis
In avascular necrosis early stages, AVN typically produces no symptoms; diseases progressed it becomes more unpleasant. At first, you may encounter pain when you put pressure it becomes painful. At first, you may experience pain when you put pressure on the affected bone. Then pain may become more constant. If the disease progress and the bone and surrounding joint collapse, you might experience significant pain that prevents your ability to use your joint. The time between the first indications and collapse of the bone may range from a few months to more than a year’s time.
Treatment for Avascular Necrosis
The purposes of treatment for AVN are to improve or ensure the function of the affected joint, stop the progress of bone deterioration, and reduce pain.
The best treatment will depend on some factors, including:
- Stage of the disease
- Your Age
- Cause of AVN
- Location and amount of bone damage
If the reason of your avascular necrosis is identified, treatment will include efforts to manage the underlying condition. For instance, if AVN is caused by blood clots, the physician will prescribe medications to eliminate cost. If inflammation of the arteries is the cause, your doctor may also prescribe anti-inflammatory medicines
If avascular necrosis is caught early, treatment may involve taking medications to relieve pain or limiting the use of the affected area. If you hip, knee, or ankle is affected, crutches may be nearby to take wight off the damaged joint. The physician may also recommend that you undergo range or motion expresses to hep improve the affected joint mobility.
There are also nonsurgical treatments that may slow the growth of avascular necrosis, most people with the condition eventually will need surgery.
- Core decompression, a procedure that includes removing part of the side of the bone to relieve pressure and allow one blood vessel.
- Osteotomy, a procedure that requires cutting the bone and changing it;s alignment to relieve stress on the bone or joint.
- Total joint replacement which includes removing the damaged joint and replacing it as synthetic point,
- Bone grafts, include removing healthy bone from one part of the body and using it to replace the damaged bone.
- Vascularized bone graft, an operation procedure that uses the patient’s tissue to rebuild indeed or broken hip joints. The surgeon will initially remove the bone with the inadequate blood supply from the hip and later replaces it with the blood vessel-rich bone from another location, such as the fibula in the smaller bone found in, the lower leg.