The human intestines are around 28 feet long. This suggests the foods you consume have an extensive journey to travel within the body before they’re fully absorbed, ingested or passed. Your intestines perform this task by going in a wave-like motion. Referred to as peristalsis, these muscle compressions advance your digested food. Nevertheless, if something stalls or blocks this movement, the effect can be a significant backup in your intestines.
The medical term for the lack of movement somewhere in the intestines that leads to a buildup and potential blockage of the food substance is described as ileus. An ileus can induce intestinal obstruction. This implies no food material, gas, or liquids can pass through the body. It can happen as a side effect after surgery. However, there are additional reasons for this condition.
Ileus is a serious matter. However, people often are unaware that food is mounting up in their intestines and they continue to eat. This forces more and more food and wastes toward the buildup. Lacking treatment, the ileus can penetrate or tear the intestinal wall. This produces bowel contents, which have excessive levels of bacteria, to drip into areas of your body cavity. This can be toxic and life threating. If an ileus does happen, it’s critical to get treatment as fast as possible.
What are the symptoms of an ileus?
An ileus can produce extreme abdominal discomfort. Symptoms linked with ileus include:
- feeling of fullness
- appetite loss
- abdominal cramping
- stomach swelling
- failure to pass gas
- vomiting, mainly vomiting half-digested – stool-like contents
- Gastrointestinal symptoms are the most prevalent signs of an ileus. Your stomach and intestines will begin to fill with gas that can’t pass out the rectum. This creates a tight and swollen appearance in the abdomen.
If you encounter these symptoms, particular after surgery, it’s essential to seek urgent medical attention.
What are the reasons for an ileus?
An ileus is following prevalent surgery since people are commonly ordered drugs that can reduce intestinal movement. This is a sort of paralytic ileus. In this case, the intestine is not obstructed. Instead, it isn’t flowing correctly. The effect is little or no movement of ingested food throughout your intestines.
Samples of medications that can create a paralytic ileus include:
tricyclic antidepressants, like imipramine (Tofranil) and amitriptyline.
However, there are numerous causes of an ileus. These include:
Crohn’s disease, which causes the intestinal walls to get thicker due to autoimmune inflammation
Parkinson’s disease, which impacts nerves and muscles in the intestines
These are the most frequent ileus causes in adults. Children can also suffer from an ileus. Intussusception is the most frequent cause of ileus in children. This is when a portion of the intestine “telescopes” or folds into itself.
Ileus for Risk factors
Ileus is the second leading reason for hospital readmission in the first 30 days following surgery. An ileus is more plausible if you’ve recently undergone abdominal surgery.
Surgical operations on the abdomen that require handling the intestines usually cause stoppage of intestinal movement for a time; this enables the surgeon to reach your intestines. Sometimes regular peristalsis can be sluggish to return. Other individuals tend to experience later scar tissue development that can also point to an ileus.
Several health conditions can raise your risk of ileus. They include:
- history of intestinal injury or trauma
- electrolyte imbalance, such as those involving potassium and calcium
- histories of intestinal disorder, such as Crohn’s disease and diverticulitis
- history of irradiation of or near the abdomen
- rapid weight loss
- peripheral artery disease
- Aging also commonly slows down how quickly the intestines progress. An older adult is at higher risk for ileus, particular because they tend to take require more medications that could slow the flow of material through the intestines.
How is an ileus determined?
A physician would initially listen to you describing your symptoms. You’ll probably be challenged about your medical history, Physician or narcotic medications, and surgeries, particularly new procedures. Your physician will then administer a physical exam, looking at your stomach for signs of inflammation or tightness. Your physician will also monitor to your abdomen for typical bowel vibrations with a stethoscope. If your bowels are not moving due to ileus, your physician cannot hear anything or may listen to several bowel sounds.
Imaging studies are generally located after a careful physical exam. A physician may use these techniques to identify areas where bowel content appears to be concentrated. Imaging studies can show where an ileus is located, likely indicating a buildup of gas, an expanded intestine, or even obstruction. Instances of imaging studies include:
plain film X-ray: This may show signs of trapped gas and possibly the blockage, but plain film X-rays aren’t always the most conclusive way to diagnose an ileus.
CT scan: This scan offers additional detailed X-ray images to assist physicians in identifying the possible area where the ileus is positioned. The scan typically uses contrast agents infused intravenously or used orally.
Ultrasound: This imaging technique is more generally used to identify an ileus in children.
In some situations, a physician may use a diagnostic procedure referred to as air or barium enema. A physician will insert air or barium sulfate, a radioopaque element, through the rectum into the colon, while a technician takes X-rays of the abdomen. The air or barium reveals itself on the X-ray to help the technician view any possible obstruction. In some children, this treatment method can address an ileus that is produced by intussusception.
What complications can an ileus produce?
An ileus can form into a severe and probably life-threatening situation. Two of the most critical complications are:
Also referred to as dead tissue untimely or cellular death. Necrosis can yrams[ore when a blocking cuts off blood supply to the intestine. Without blood flow, oxygen can’t reach the tissue, creating it to die. Dead tissue weakens the intestinal wall. This makes it easy for the intestine to tear and leak bowel contents. This is known asa bowel perforation.
The bowel perforation mentioned earlier can cause peritonitis. This is a severe inflammation of the abdominal cavity caused by bacteria or fungus. Your bowel contains many bacteria, like E. coli. They are supposed to remain in your intestines, not roam free in your body cavity. Bacterial peritonitis can turn into sepsis, a life-threatening condition that can result in organ failure and shock.
How is an ileus treated?
Treatments for an ileus based on its severity. Examples include:
Occasionally a condition like Crohn’s disease or diverticulitis will mean that part of the intestine isn’t moving. However, some bowel elements can get through. In this occurrence, if you are otherwise stable, a physician may support a low-fiber diet. This can aid in reducing the bulky stool, making it easier to pass through the body. However, if that doesn’t operate, a surgical procedure to repair or move the affected portion of the bowel may be needed.
A complete obstruction is a health emergency. Treatment will depend upon your overall health. For example, some people can’t handle an extensive abdominal surgery. This constitutes the very elderly and those with colon cancer. In this case, a physician may use a metal stent to make the intestine more open. Ideally, food will start to pass with the stent.
Abdominal surgery to eliminate the blockage or the damaged intestine portion may still be needed though.
Treatment for a paralytic ileus begins by identifying the underlying cause. If medicine is the cause, a physician may be able to suggest another medication to excite motility (intestine movement). A case of this is metoclopramide (Reglan). Ending the drugs manufacturing that caused the ileus, if possible, can also help. However, you shouldn’t stop taking a medicine, especially an antidepressant, without your doctor’s approval.
Treatment without surgery is probably during the early stages of paralytic ileus. However, you may still necessitate a hospital stay to get the proper fluids until the issue is fully resolved. A physician may also use a nasogastric tube with suctioning, in addition to giving intravenous fluid hydration. Identified as nasogastric decompression, this operation calls for a tube to be implanted into your nasal cavity to reach your stomach. Particularly the tube suctions out the extra air and substance that you may otherwise vomit.
Most surgery-related ileus will conclude within two to four days after surgery. However, some patients do expect operation for repair if the health condition doesn’t improve.
Considerations for surgery
Your intestines are extensive, so you can live without a part of it. While it may influence the digestive process, most people do live a healthy life with a part of their intestine removed.
In some cases, a physician may have to eliminate the entire intestine. In this case, a doctor will create a special pouch called an ostomy. The bag allows stool to drain from your remaining gastrointestinal tract. You have to care for the ostomy, but you can live without your intestine after an ileus.
Recovery Outlook for ileus
An ileus is common, but it’s very treatable. If you’ve recently had a surgery, or have additional risk factors for an ileus you be on the lookout of the symptoms. Inquiring medical care is necessary for the hopes the ileus can be fixed without an invasive medical procedure.
Can an ileus be prevented?
Most of the risk factors linked with ileus aren’t preventable. Examples include an injury or chronic illness. If an operation is expected, the opportunity for ileus should be examined. However, it shouldn’t hinder you from undergoing a needed surgery.
Being informed of the symptoms of ileus are essential in seeking prompt treatment to prevent it from getting worse.