What is ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)?

What is ADHD or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?
ADHD is a brain disorder that is marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and hyperactivity and impulsiveness that interferes with your daily functions and development

Inattention- Inducted a person wander off task, lacks persistence has difficulty sustaining focus. Moreover, is disorganized. Moreover, these problems are not due to defiance or lack of comprehension.
Hyperactivity means a person seems to move about constantly including in situation in which it is not appropriate, or excessively fidget talks and taps, or talks. In adults, it may be excessive moving of wearing other out with non-stop activity.
Impulsivity means a person makes ill-advised actions that occur at the moment without first thinking about them and that may have the potential for harm, or desire for immediate reward or inability to delay gratification. An extemporaneous person may be socially intrusive and excessively insult others or make important decisions without considering the long-term consequences.

ADHD Signs and symptoms
Hyperactivity, Inattention, and impulsivity are the key indicators of ADHA. Some people with ADHS only have problems with one of these behaviors, will others may struggle with hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention. Most children will have some form of combined ADHD.
In preschool, the most common ADHD symptom is hyperactivity.
It is common to have some inactive, unfocused motor activity and impulsivity, but from people with ADHD, these behaviors include;

Interfere with quality of social interactions at school or job,
Are more severe instances
Occur more often.

People who have Inattention. will have the following:

  • Overlook or miss details, make careless mistakes in school work or at work, and during other activities.
  • Have problems seating attention in tasks or play, including comigration, lectures or lengthy reading.
  • Not following through on instructions and fail to finish schoolwork rules or chores in the workplace, or task to get quickly sidelined.
  • The person does not appear to listen when spoken to directly.
  • Have challenges organizing task and activities such as what to do in sequence, keeping materials and belonging in order, giving work areas very messy, failing to meet deadlines, due to poor time management.
  • Avoid or dislike task that requires sustained the mental effort, such as homework and schoolwork, for teens and order holders may have difficulty preparing reports completing forms or reviewing lengthy papers.
  • Losing things quickly, such as school supplies and pencils, keys, cell phones, and wallets.
  • Easily distracted to unrelated thoughts or stimuli.
  • Be forget in daily activities, such as chores, earns and returning calls, keeping appointments.
  • Hyperactivity- impulsively.
  • People with symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity may often
  • Fidget and squirm in their seats
  • Leave their seats in situations that they are expected, such as in the classroom or the office.
  • Be unable to play or engage in hobbies quietly
  • Rusn or dash around or climb in situation where it is inappropriate
  • Nonstop talking.
  • Have trouble waiting for you turn
  • Intrude or interrupt others during conversations or activities such as games.
  • Blurt out answers before questions or answers before another person finishes or speak without waiting for their turn in the conversation.

Diagnosis of ADHD entails a comprehensive evaluation by a licensed clinician, such as the psychologist, psychiatrist Pediatrician with expertise in ADHD. For a person to receive a diagnose, the symptoms, of hyperactivity-impulsiveness. Symptoms be chronic or long-lasting. Comparing a person’s functions and cause the person to fall behind normal development for that persons’ age cohort. The doctor will also assure that any ADHD symptoms are not due to another medical or psychiatric condition. Most children with ADHD undergo a diagnosis during elementary school years. For an adolescent or adult to receive a diagnosis of ADHD, the symptoms need to have been present before age 12.

ADHD symptoms can emerge as early as between the ages of 3 and 6 and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms of ADHD can be confused with emotional or disciplinary problems or missed entirely in quiet, well-behaved children, leading to a lag in diagnosis. Adults with undiagnosed ADHD may have a history of poor academic performance, problems at work, or difficult or failed relationships.

ADHD symptom can change over time as a person ages. In young children with ADHD, hyperactivity- impulsivity is the most predominant symptoms. As a child enters elementary school, the symptom of inattention may become more permanents and cause the child to struggle academically. In adolescence, hyperactive seems to lessen and may show more often as feelings of uneasiness or fidgeting, but inattention and impulsivity may remain. Many adolescents with ADHD also grapple with relationships and antisocial behaviors, inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity tend to persist into adulthood.

Risk Factors
Scientist are not sure what causes ADHD. Like many other illnesses, some factors can contribute to ADHD including the following:

  • Low Birth weight
  • Brain injuries
  • Exposure to environment toxins during pregnancy
  • Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as toxins -high levels of lead, at a young age.
  • Low birth weight
  • Brian injuries
  • Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, or drug use throughout pregnancy
  • ADHD is more common in males than females, and females with ADHD are more likely to have problems primarily with intention. Other conditions, such as depression, learning disabilities, conduct disorder, anxiety disorder and substance abuse, are prevalent in people with ADHD.

Treatment and Therapies
Although there is no cure for ADHD, currently accessible treatments can help reduce symptoms and increase functioning, Treatments include medicine, psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments.

Medication -For many people, ADHD medications reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus, work, and learn. Medicines also may improve physical coordination. Sometimes several different medicines or dosages must be tried before finding the right on that works for a particular person. Anyone taking medications needs to be monitored closely and carefully by their prescribing doctor.

Stimulants, The most common type of medication use by treating ADHD is called a “stimulant.” While it may seem unusual to treat ADHD with medication that is considered a stimulant, it works since it increases the brain chemicals dopamine and norepinephrine, which plays fundamental roles in thinking and attention.

Under medical supervision, stimulant medications
Under medical supervision, stimulant medications are deemed safe. However, there are a risk and side effects, especially when misused or taken more than the prescribed dose. For example, stimulants can raise blood pressure and heart rate and increase anxiety. There, a person with other health problems, including high blood pressure, seizures, heart diesel, liver, glaucoma or kidney disease, or anxiety disorder should tell their doctor before taking a stimulant

Talk with a doctor if you see any of these side effects while taking stimulants:

  • Decreased appetite
  • Sleep problems
  • Headaches
  • Stomach aches
  • Personality changes
  • Tics (sudden, repetitive movements or sounds);
  • Increased anxiety and irritability

Non-stimulants, A few other ADHD medications are not stimulants/ These medications take longer to start working than stimulants. A bit can also improve focus, attention, and impulsivity in an individual with ADHD. Doctors may prescribe a non-stimulant; when a person have troublesome side effects from stimulants; when a stimulant was not adequate; or in combination with a stimulant to increase effectiveness.
Although not approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration FDA specifically for the treatment of ADHD

Although not approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration. FDS especially for the treatment of ADHD, some antidepressants are seldom used alone or in combination with a stimulant to treat ADHD. Antidepressants may assist all of the symptoms of ADHD and can be designated if a patient has side effects that cause discomfort with the usage of stimulates if a patient also has other condition, such as an anxiety disorder, depression, or another mood disorder.

Physicians and patients can work together to find the best medications does or drug combination. Learn the basic about stimulants and other mental health drugs on the NIMH Mental Health Medications Webpage and check the FDA website. For the last information or warnings, patient medication guides, or newly approved medications.

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy can help treat ADHD and help patients and their family to better cope with everyday challenges.
Behavioral therapy is a type of treatment that intends to help a person adjust his or her behavior. It may include practical assistance such as help organizing task or completing schoolwork or working through emotionally challenging events. Behavior therapy also shows you how to:

give yourself credit and rewards when you act a discreet way, such as controlling anger or think before acting
Monitor your behavior.
Parents, teach and family members can give positive or negative feedback for certain bavarois and help establish clear rules, chore list, other structured routines to help a person control his or her behavior. The therapist may also teach children’s social skill, such as asking for help, sharing top or responding for tearing. Learning to read facial expressions and the tone of voice in others and how to respond the right way can be part of social skills trying.

Cognitive behavioral therapy also can teach a person mindfulness techniques or medication. A person learns show to be aware and accepting of one’s thoughts and perceptions to improve focus and concentration. The therapist also inspires the person with ADHD to adjust the life changes that come with treatment, such thinking about acting, or resisting the urge to take the unnecessary risk.

Family and marital therapy can help family members and spouses find better ways to handle disruptive behaviors m to encourage behavior changes and improve interaction with the patient.