What is Acne: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments and Prevention


Acne Is a skin condition that arises when your hair follicles become closed off with oil and dead skin cells. Acne typically appears multiple parts of the body, including the face, neck back, shoulders and chest. Effect treatments are viable. However, acne can be persistent. The pimples and bumps heal slower when one begins to go away, other seem to come up.

Acne is most prevalent in teenagers, who reported incidents of 70 to 87 percent. However, younger children increasingly have more cases of acne.
Depending on the level of severity, acne can cause emotional distress and scar on the skin. The quicker you undergo treatment, the lower the risk fo acne having lasting physical and emotional damage.
Acne Symptoms

Acne symptoms can vary depending on the severity of your condition.

  1. Blackhead( open plugged pores – oil turns brown when it is exposed to air.
  2. Whiteheads are close plugged pores
  3. Small red, tender bumps (papules)
  4. Large, thick, painful lumps beneath the surface of the skin (nodules)
  5. Pimples (pustules), which are poles with at their tips
  6. Painful, pus-filled lumps beneath the surface of the skin (cystic lesions)

When Should you see a doctor:

If remedies do not work, to clear up your acne, see your primary care doctor. He or she can prescribe stronger medications. If acne persists or is severe, or may want to seek medical treatment from a doctor who specializes in the skin (dermatologist)

The Food and Drug Administration have warnings of some popular On-prescription acne cleanser, lotions, gels and other skin products can cause a severe reaction. This type of response is quite rare, so you will not mistake it with irritation, redness or itchiness where you applied the medication.

If after using a non-prescription skin product you experience:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Tightness in the throat
  • Faintness
  • Swelling of the eyes, lips, tongue or face.


Causes of Acne

There are four main factors causes of acne:

  • Dead skin cells
  • Oil production
  • Bacteria
  • Clogged pores

Acne appears o the face, chest, neck, back, and shoulders. These areas of the skin have the majority of the body’s oil ( sebaceous) glands Acne happens when hair follicles become filled with oil and dead skin cells.

Hair follicles are attached to oil glands. These glands discharge an oily substance (sebum) to lubricate your skin and hair. Sebum typically travels along the hair shafts and through the opening of the hair follicles into the surface of your skin.

  • When your body creates a surplus quantity of sebum and dead skin cells, the two build up in the hair follicles. They produce a soft plug, creating an environment where bacteria can grow. If the clogged pore becomes infected with bacteria, inflammation can occur.
  • The plugged pore may reuse in the follicle wall to bulge and produce a whitehead. Alternatively, the plug may be open to the outside and may darken, creating a blackhead. A blackhead can look like dirt stuck in pores. However, the pore is filled with bacteria and oil, which turns brown when it exposed to the air.
  • Pimples are raised red spots including a white center that develops when blocked hair follicles grow inflamed, or infected bBlockages and inflammation that develop deep inside hair follicles produce cyst0lik lumps beneath the surface of the skin. Other pores in the skin which are the opening of the sweat glands are not typically affected by acne.
  • Factors that may aggravate Acne – Androgens are hormones that increase in boys and girls during puberty ad cause the sebaceous glands to enlarge and make more sebum. Hormonal changes related to pregnancy and the use of oral contraceptives also can affect sebum production. A low amount of androgens circulate in the blood of women and can worsen acne.
    Certain medications Drugs containing corticosteroids, androgens of lithium can worsen acne.
    Diet Studies show that particular dietary factors include dairy products and carbohydrate-rich food, such as bagels, chips, and bread, which may trigger acne. Chocolate has long been considered a source of making acne worse. A student of 14 men with acne indicate that eating chocolate was related to an create in acne. Future study is needed to examine why this happens, or whether acne patients need specific dietary restrictions.
    Stress can make acne worse.
  • acne stages
    Acne Myths
  • Greasy foods Eating fatty foods has little to no effect on acne. Through working in a grassy area, such as a kitchen with fry vats can cause oil to stick to the skin and block the hair follicles.
  • Dirty skin, Acne is not caused by dirt, in fact, scrubbing the skin too hard or cleansing with harsh soaps of chemical irritates the skin and can make acne worse. Though it does help gently to remove oil, dead skin, and other substances.
    Cosmetic do not necessarily worsen acne, especially if you utilize oil-free makeup options that do not clog pores (noncomedogenic) and remove makeup regularly. Non -oily cosmetic can not intense with the effectiveness of acne drugs.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for acne include:

  • Hormonal Changes – changes are common in teenagers women and girls, and people using certain medications, including those containing corticosteroids androgens or lithium.
  • Genetic history has a role in acne. If both parents had acne, you are likely to develop it as well
  • Greasy, oily substance. You may develop acne where you skin comes into contact with oily creams, lotions or greasiness in a work area, such as a restaurant or kitchen with fry vats.
  • Friction or pressure on the skin, This can be caused by cell phones, helmets, tight colors, backpacks or telephones
  • Stress – This does not cause acne, but if you can see already it can make it worse.


Acne Treatments and Medications

You can try taking over the counter nonprescription drugs if those do not resolve your acne your physician may prescribe more power medications or therapies. You may want to consult a dermatologist who can help you:

  • Contol and reduce additional acne outbreaks
  • Avoid damage and scarring to your skin.
  • May the scars less visible.

Acne medications work by decreasing the amount of oil your skin provide and speeding up the skin cell turnover rate, fighting bacterial infections as well as reducing inflammation – which can help prevent scarring. Most prescription acne medications may not show results for the first four to eight weeks; your skin may also get worse before it starts to improve. It can even take several months or years for your acne to clear entirely up.

The medications that your doctor recommend will depend on the severity and type of acne you have. It may be something you apply directly to the skin as a topical medication or take orally like a pill. Often doctors will recommend a combination of both. Pregnant women will likely not be able to use oral prescription medications for acne.

You should ask your doctor about the risk and benefits of drugs and treatment.

Topical Medications

Topical medications work most effectively when applied to clean, dry skin about 15 minutes after washing. You may not see the benefits of topical medications for the first few weeks. Moreover, you may have some skin irritation initially, with redness, dryness, and peeling.

Your doctor may suggest steps to minimize these side effects including gradually increasing the dose, or washing off the medication after a shorter treatment or shifting to another drug.

The most common topical prescription drug for acne are the following:

Retinoids – These are lotions, gels, and creams. Retinoid drugs extracted from vitamin A and include tazarotene (Tazorac, Avage), adapalene (Differin) AND (Avita, Retin-A, others). Applying this medication three times a week in the evening, the daily as the skin becomes normalized to that. It works by preventing hair follicles from plugging.
Antibiotics – work by killing surplus skin bacteria and reducing redness and swelling For the first few months of antibiotic treatment. You may be required to use retinoids along with the antibiotics, with the antibiotics applied in the morning and retinoid application in the evening. The antibiotics are often combined with benzoyl provide to reduce the likelihood of the skin developing resistance to the effects of the antibiotics. A few examples include erythromycin with benzoyl peroxide (Benzamycin) and clindamycin combined with benzoyl peroxide (Benzaclin, Acanya. Duac)
Dapsone or zone – This is a gel that is combined with a topical retinoid to be most effective. Sid effects include skin dryness and redness.


Oral Medications

Antibiotics – For people with moderate to severe acne, you may require taking oral antibiotics to fight inflammation and reduce the bacteria. Some common oral antibiotic choices are tetracyclines such as doxycycline or minocycline.

Your doctor may recommend tapering off the antibiotic medication as soon as you symptoms begin to show signs of improve or it is clear that they are not long, which is usually in three to four months. Reducing the dosage helps prevent resistance to the antibiotic from forming by minimizing unneeded exposure to this medication over a long time.

You will likely also use topical medication along with oral antibiotics. Studies indicate that using both the topical benzoyl peroxide and oral antibiotics reduce the risk of developing antibiotic resistance.
Antibiotics can also produce side effects such as dizziness and upset your stomach. These antibiotics tend to increase the skin’s sun sensitivity. This can cause teeth discoloration in the development of terminate teeth in children born to women who take tetracyclines while they are pregnant.


Combing Oral contraceptives – Combining oral contraceptives are useful in treating acne in women and adolescent girls. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved three drugs that combine estrogen and progestin, Estrostep, Ortho Tri-Cyclen and Yaz)

The most frequent side effects are tenderness in the breast, headaches, nausea, breakthrough bleeding and weight gain. Serious potential complications include increased the risk of blood clots.


Anti-androgen agent This drug spironolactone (Aldactone) can be considered for adolescent girls and women if oral antibiotics are not working. It works by obstructing the effect of androgen hormones of the sebaceous glands. The possible side effect includes painful periods and breast tenderness and the reaction of potassium.
Isotretinoin – Is a medication that reserved for cases of the most severe acne. Isotretinoin ( Sotret, Amenesteem, and Claravis) is a powerful combination for people whose acne does not respond to other treatments.

Oral Isotretinoin is very useful. However, there are potential side effects, which the doctor will need to monitor closely on in anyone who is treated with this medication. The most serious potential side effects include increased the risk of depression and suicide, severe birth defects and ulcerative colitis.
Due to Isotretinoin serious risk and side effects, women of reproductive age must practice in an FDA approved monitor program to receive a prescription of the drug.


Therapies may be suggested in select cases with as combinations with medications or alone.

Light therapy – Various light based therapies have been tried with success. However, additional studies are needed to determine the ideal method, light source, and dosage. Light therapy targets the bacteria in the cause of acne inflammation. Some types of light therapy are performed in a doctor’s office. Blue-light therapy can be achieved at home with hand-held devices. The possible side effects of light therapy are temporary redness, sensitivity to sunlight and pain.

Chemical peel – This procedure is reoccurring, with multiple applications of a chemical solution such as salicylic acid. It is mots effective when it is combined with other acne treatments, except oral retinoids. Chemical peels are not recommended for people taking oral retinoids become tighter this treatment may significant irritate the skin.
Chemical peels may cause temporary, severe scaling, blistering, redness and long-term skin discoloration.

Blackhead and Whitehead extraction – Your trilogies may use special tools hat will gently extract and remove blackheads and whiteheads that have not cleared up with topical medications. This technique may lead to scarring.
Steroid Injection – Nodular and cystic lesion can be treated by injecting a steroid medication directly into them. This enhances their appearance without the need for removal. The side effects of the technique include thinning of the skin, lighter skin and appeared of a small blood vessel on treated area.

Treating acne scars

Procedures uses to remove scars left by acne include the following:

Soft tissue fillers – Injecting soft tissue fillers, such as collagen or fat, under the skin and into indented scars can fill out or stretch the skin. This makes the scars less recognizable. Results are temporary, so you would need to repeat the injection periodically. Side effects include temporary swelling, bruising, and redness.
Chemical peels, High potency acid, is applied to your skin to remove the top layer and minimize deeper scars.
Dermabrasion – This procedure is usually reserved for more severe scarring. It involves sanding planning the source layer of skin with a rotating brush. This help blends acne scars into the surrounding skin.
Laser resurfacing. This is a procedure to resurface the skin that uses a laser to enhance the appearance of your skin.
Light therapy Special lasers, pulsed light sources and radio-frequency devices that don’t damage the epidermis can be applied to treat scars. These treatments heart the dermis and produce new skin to form. After several treatments, acne scars may look less noticeable. This treatment has shorter healing times than some other treatment. However you may need to repeat the procedure more often, and the result is not as effective.
Skin surgery. Using a minor procedure described as punch excision, your doctor cuts out individual acne scar and repair the hole at the scar site with stitches or a skin graft.

Lifestyle Changes

You can avoid or control mild acne with non-prescription medications. Good basic skin care and other self-care methods.

  • Wash problem area with gentle cleansers You should use your hands to wash your face twice a day with mild soap and warm water. If you develop acne around your hairline, you should shampoo every day.
  • Avoid specific products, such as facial scrubs, astringents, and mask, because they tend to irritate the skin which may worsen acne. Essvcive watching a scrubbing can also irritate the skin.
  • You can try over the counter acne products to dry excessive oil and start peeling. You should look for products canting benzoyl, resorcinol, sulfur, or salicylic acid. These may have initial side effects, such as dryness, redness, and scaling. The FDA warns of some popular nonprescription acne lotions, skin products, and cleaners.
  • Avoid irritants; You should avoid oily, greasy cosmetic, hairstyling products, sunscreens, acne concealers, Us water-based or noncomedogenic products that will not trigger irritation
  • Use an oil-free moisture with sunscreen. Ths sun can worsen acnes. Some medications can make you more susceptible to the sun’s rays. Check with your doctor for recommendations.
    Watch what touches your skin. Wearing tight clothing and hats can be problematic, specifically, if your sweating, since sweating and oil contribute to acne.

Do not pick or squeeze your blemishes.This can cause infections and scarring.

Some Alternative Medicines

  • Tea tree oil
  • Alpha hydroxy acid
  • Azelaic Acid
  • Bovine Cartilage
  • Zinc
  • Green Tea extract
  • Aloe Vera
  • Brewer is yeast

Acne Prevention

Once your acne improves, you may need to maintain your acne medication or treatment to prevent new breakouts. You may also need to use topical medication or acne-prone areas of the skin. Continue taking oral contraceptives or attend ongoing light therapy.

You can also get this acne- prevention tips:

  • Was acne-prone areas only twice a day. Washing removes excess oil and dead skin. Too much washing can irritate the skin. Wash affected areas gently.
  • Use over the counter acne creams to help dry excess oil.
  • Use oil free makeup – Choose oil-free cosmetics that will not clog pores.
  • Remove makeup before going to bed. Going to sleep with cosmetics can cause clogged pores.
  • Wear lifting clothing. Avoid tight-fitting straps, helmets, hats, sports equipment.
  • Show after strenuous activities, Oil and sweat can lead to breakouts
  • Avoid touch or picking at problem areas.