What Are Keloids?


Keloids are an overgrowth of scar tissue that develops around skin tissue that has been damaged, or a wound. The cause of keloids are not known, but they are more prevalent in people who have darker skin color. There are varied treatments that are available. People prone to develop keloid should avoid tattoos, piercings, and unnecessary surgery.

A Keloid is the overgrowth of sacred tissue, which usually forms after the wound has healed. A keloid scar can sometimes be confused with hypertrophic scars. Hypertonic scars tend to be redder and often regress less spontaneously. Treatment such cortisone or steroids can speed up this process. However, keloids normally grow and migrate beyond the borders of the original wound, into surrounding areas not affected by the original scar. While hypertrophic scar tissue stayed within the wound border When keloids were first discovered, the term was ‘chéloïde,’ derived from the Greek word ‘chele’ meaning crab’s claw. It refers to the way the keloid grows sideways into the normal skin.

What causes Keloids to Occur?
The exact cause is not known. It can develop after acne spots or boils, laceration, surgical wounds, burns, body piercings. Having an infection can potentially increase the risk of developing keloids. Changes in the cellular signal that control the proliferating and information may be linked to the process of keloid formation, but these changes have not been characterized enough to provide clarity. It has been speculated that malfunction with fibroblast, and their chemical regulation. Hormonal problems with the immune system and genetic can also play a role. It is suspected that genetically this condition can be passed through families. However, studies have not been able to delineate the exact genes responsible for this predisposition.


Who is at risk of developing keloids
Keloid acre is more common in people with darker complexion than lighter complexions. African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian are at higher risk. Keloids are equally as common in men and women. Keloids are less common in children and-and the elderly.

Where do Keloids tend to appear?
Keloids develop most often on the back, shoulders, chest and earlobes. Seldomly does keloids develop on the face, with exception of the cheeks, and jawline?

What are the symptoms of Keloid?

Keloid generally starts to develop about three months following the original damage to the skin. However, it can take up to a year to form.The first sign that you will notice is the skin will become a rubbery scar tissue starts growing and surpassing the borders of the original damage. The growth may become itchy painful, tender or produce a burning sensation. Occasionally keloid develops without any skin injury. Although most people can identify a cause. Keloids growing over a joint can restrict movement. IN time, the original red color changes to brown or become pale.
Keloid growth can continue from a few weeks to a few months. The growth is typically slow but sometimes there are periods of rapid growth over. Once they stop growing, most keloid scars stay the same size or shrink.


How is Keloid diagnosed?
Dermatologist, Plastic surgeons and certain family physicians generally diagnose and treat keloids with occasional help from a therapeutic radiologist. Typically keloid can be diagnosed by the appearance of the skin and the medical history.

What are the treatments for Keloid
A Keloid scars may shrink over time, but that rarely disappears. completely. You may also feel that you can live with a small scar especially if it is out of site. However, if you are console about the appearance you ma want to leverage available treatment options. No treatment. No treatment is 100% effective, and you may be offered multiple treatment options.

Most cases of keloid respond to steroid injections or triamcinolone into the scar. These injections occur every 2 -6 weeks until visible improvement is seen. Occasionally, the injection can cause a network of surface veins to develop (telangiectasias) or lightening or thinning of the surrounding skin. Added method is to use steroid-impregnated tape which is applied to the scar for 12 hours a day.

Pressure and airtight (inclusive) dressing
A dressing which applies pressure and prevents air from coming into contact with the scar is used. The dressing my must be used during 12-24 hour daily intervals for several weeks. The preparation used are typically silicon as a gel or impermanent sheet or self adhesive polyurethane self-adhesive patches. Other products are viable. Compression earrings are recommended for cases with keloids affecting earlobes. They  are usually used once the original keloid has to be removed by surgery and have to be worn 24 hours day.


Removing keloid scars by surgery can result in even larger scars, so in conjunction with surgery, you may be offered other treatments as well such as steroid injections. Occlusive or pressure dressing or radiotherapy. Careful surgical techniques. Using as few stitches as possible when closing the wounded help to minimize the risk of further keloid formation.

Radiotherapy has the risk of potentially causing cancer to occur and should be reserved for difficult situations in areas well away from internal organs such as the stomach or chest ( such as the arm or leg). Pieces of radioactive materials or seeds are implanted in into the surrounding area (brachytherapy) after surgery for keloids may be recommended for severe cases.

Cryotherapy is the use of a probe to freeze tissue. It has been used alone or in combination with other types of treatments, particular steroid injections. In early stages of keloid, formation act may top the keloid from growing. It can also cause pale areas at the treatment site. Intralesional cryotherapy utilizes a probe that freezes keloid tissue from the inside this method is being researched.

Laser treatment Lasers are often used to treat keloid. Pulsed dye laser and Nd:YAG  Lasers are types of laser that are reported to give the most impactful results while having few side effects. However, more resize is needed to find out which types of lasers are most effective and how to best use them. Pulsed dye laser can be less efficient on darker skin. In some cases redness is reduced however not the size of the keloid. Carbon dioxide laser are often used after steroid injection for hard to treat keloids on the back.

Interferon Therapy.
Interferon alfa is an antiviral drug. It has been found to improve the effect of steroid injection but does not work well on its own.

Cytotoxic medicines
Theses are medicines which slow down tissue growth and are normally used as anti-cancer treatments. Two types commonly used for Keloid scars are bleomycin and 5-fluorouracil. These are injected into the scar am may be used alone or in a blend with other treatments. You may get pain in the scar and the area may become pale there is breakdown of the skin as side effects of this treatment.

Retinoids Normally used in acne, these have shown some improvements when applied to the surface of the people and inserted into it Physicians do not normally consider them as a first choice they may not achieve the same results as other treatments

Can you prevent Keloids?

If you are at risk of developing keloids, you should avoid tattoos and body piercings. You should stay clear of any unnecessary surgeries such as cosmetic surgery, specifically in areas of the body where keloid is likely to from. If you get acne, you should make sure it is treated at the early stages effectively, so that spot do not scar. If you are at risk and need an operation, your doctor may recommend for you to try dressings as well as use steroid injections or additional treatment to reduce the risk of keloid starting and growing.