A urinary catheterization is used for the following: To obtain urine samples for examination to measure the residual urine volume relief of urinary retention or incontinence to direct insertion of radioresistant contrast agents into the bladder To flush the bladder catheterization can be performed transurethral or suprapubic. Catheter catheter differ on the caliber, “tip” configuration, number of ports, balloon size, type of material and the length. The caliber is standardized in French- (F) units, also known as Charrière- (Ch) units. Each unit equals 0.33 mm, so that a 14-F catheter measures 4.6 mm in diameter. Sizes range from 12-24 F for adults and 8-12 F for children. Smaller catheters are sufficient usually for an uncomplicated Harnentlastung and urethral strictures or bladder neck obstruction. Larger catheters are used for bladder irrigation and for bleeding (eg. As post-operative or hemorrhagic cystitis) and pyuria, because blood clots smaller caliber catheter can clog. “Tips” are in most catheter straight (z. B. Robinson, “whistle-tip”) and are used for intermittent catheterization of the urethra (d. H. Catheter is removed immediately after bladder drainage). Foley catheters have a solid tip and an inflatable balloon for self-fixing. They are used for suprapubic catheterization or nephrostomy. Other self-maintaining catheter have an expandable tip in the form of a mushroom (Pezzer catheter) or look like a four-bladed perforated mushroom from (Maleco catheter). Curved catheter (Tiemann, Coudé), which also have balloons self-adhesion, having a bent tip to facilitate catheterization of strictures or obstructions through (z. B. obstruction of the prostate). Ports are used in all catheters for continuous urine drainage. Many catheters have ports for inflating the balloons, flushing, or both (eg., 3-way Foley). The balloons with self-adhesive catheters have different capacities ranging from 2.5 to 5 ml in catheters for children and from 10 to 30 ml in catheters for adults. Larger balloons and catheters are commonly used to treat bleeding. The balloon is pushed by train to the catheter against the base of the bladder and exerts pressure on the blood vessels, which reduces the bleeding, but may be causing ischemia. Stylet are flexible metal lead wires which are inserted into the catheter, to provide strength and to facilitate insertion through strictures or obstructions and should only be used by physicians who are sufficiently familiar with this technique. What catheter material is chosen depends on what the catheter is inserted. Catheter of plastic, latex or polyvinyl chloride for intermittent use. (To reduce bacterial colonization) catheter made of latex with silicone, hydrogel, or silver-alloy coated polymer are suitable for continuous use. Silicone catheters are used in patients with latex allergy. Urethral catheters A urethral catheter can be by any doctor and sometimes introduced by the patient. It is necessary no prior preparation of the patient; Therefore, the bladder is catheterized through the urethra, unless this route is contraindicated. Among the relative contraindications include the following: urethral strictures Current HWI urethral reconstruction or bladder operations Urethraltrauma The urethral meatus is carefully cleaned with an antibacterial solution with a completely sterile technique the catheter is lubricated with a sterile gel and gently advanced through the urethra into the bladder. Lidocaine gel can be injected through the male urethra, before the catheter is introduced in order to relieve discomfort. As the urethra is catheterized in women © Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This video is personal information. The users to copy, reproduce, license, subscribe, sell, rent or distribution is prohibited by this video. var model = {videoId: ‘4536717314001’, playerId ‘H1xmEWTatg_default’, imageUrl ‘http://f1.media.brightcove.com/8/3850378299001/3850378299001_4536736822001_4536717314001-vs.jpg?pubId=3850378299001&videoId=4536717314001’, title: ‘As the urethra in women is catheterized’ description: ” credits’ © Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This video is personal information. The users to copy, reproduce, license, subscribe, sell, rent or distribution is prohibited by this video ‘, hideCredits: true hideTitle: false, hideDescription: true loadImageUrlWithAjax: true};. var panel = $ (MManual.utils.getCurrentScript ()) Closest ( ‘video element panel..’); ko.applyBindings (model, panel.get (0)); As the urethra is catheterized for Men © Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This video is personal information. The users to copy, reproduce, license, subscribe, sell, rent or distribution is prohibited by this video. var model = {videoId: ‘4573215424001’, playerId ‘H1xmEWTatg_default’, imageUrl ‘http://f1.media.brightcove.com/8/3850378299001/3850378299001_4573285814001_vs-56292b05e4b0dec9aac507f1-782203287001.jpg?pubId=3850378299001&videoId=4573215424001’ title: ‘How the urethra in men is catheterized’ description: ” credits’ © Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This video is personal information. The users to copy, reproduce, license, subscribe, sell, rent or distribution is prohibited by this video ‘, hideCredits: true hideTitle: false, hideDescription: true loadImageUrlWithAjax: true};. var panel = $ (MManual.utils.getCurrentScript ()) Closest ( ‘video element panel..’); ko.applyBindings (model, panel.get (0)); Among the complications of urinary catheterization include: urethral or bladder trauma with bleeding or microscopic hematuria (often) HWI (often) Select false passages scars and strictures bladder perforation (rare) catheter-associated UTIs tend to morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs and to increase the length of hospital stay. . Among the recommendations, as the number of UTIs can be reduced include the following: restriction of the use of urethral catheter on indications that are clearly medically necessary (for example, not only to the number of overnight visits by medical personnel to urinals to empty, to minimize). Catheters should be removed as soon as possible. Establishment of strict aseptic conditions during catheter insertion maintain sterility and closing of the drainage system suprapubic catheterization A suprapubic catheterization via percutaneous cystostomy is performed by the urologist or another experienced doctor. A preliminary preparation of the patient is not required. The general indications are a necessary long-term bladder drainage and the inability to catheterize a catheter through the urethra or there is a contraindication for this method, but a urinary catheterization is still necessary. To the contraindications include the following: inability the position of the blister layer to define clinically or sonographically A bladder is empty suspected adhesions of the abdomen or lower abdomen (. For example, after operation of the pelvis, or lower abdomen or after radiotherapy) Once the abdominal wall suprapubisch is anesthetized with a local anesthetic, a needle is inserted in the full bladder; if available, an ultrasound-guided needle. The catheter is then placed by a special trocar or guidewire which is passed through the needle into the bladder. A previous surgery of the abdomen and previous radiation therapy represent a contraindication to the “blind” to introduce. Complications can HWI, violations of intra-abdominal organs and bleeding.

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