Ureteranomalien often occur together with kidney abnormalities, but can also occur independently. Complications include obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux (Vesicoureteral reflux), infection and stone formation (because of urinary) incontinence (if the ureters not work as intended flow into the bladder but in the urethra, peritoneum or vagina). The diagnosis may be suspected by abnormalities in routine prenatal sonography (z. B. hydronephrosis) and sometimes during a physical exam (eg. As in the search for an external ectopic ureteral orifice or a palpable mass). Ureteral abnormalities should be suspected in children with an episode of pyelonephritis or recurrent urinary tract infections. Studies are typically sonography of kidney, ureter and bladder before and after urination, and then continuous Miktionszystourethrographie in bladder emptying. Treatment consists of surgical correction. Duplikationsanomalien can partial or complete duplication of one or both ureters occur together with a duplication of the ipsilateral renal pelvis. Upon complete duplication of the ureter joins the upper pole of the kidney caudal to the ostium of the lower pole. This results in that the lower pole tends to reflux and the upper pole tends to obstruction if pathology is present. Ectopy or stenosis of one or both orifices, vesicoureteral reflux in one or both ureters and Ureterocele are common. Surgical intervention is required to correct the vesicoureteral reflux, obstruction or urinary incontinence. A partial duplication is rarely of clinical significance. Ectopic ureteral orifices openings single or doubled ureters may erroneously be in the lateral bladder wall, distally along the trigone, the bladder neck, in the female urethra distal to the sphincter (resulting in continuous incontinence – in spite of a normal emptying of the bladder), (in the genital system prostate and seminal vesicles in man, uterus and vagina in women) or outside. Side ectopic ostia often lead to vesicoureteral reflux, while distal ectopic ostia frequently cause an obstruction and incontinence. Surgery is indicated in any case with obstruction and incontinence, sometimes when vesicoureteral reflux. Retrokavaler ureter In retrokavalen ureters is a developmental anomaly of the vena cava with relocation of the inferior vena cava before the ureters. A retrokaval running left ureter occurs only in persistence of the left Subkardialvene or complete situs inversus. This can cause obstruction of the ureter. A significant obstruction surgical treatment is indicated. It consists of a separation of the ureter with uretero-urethral anastomosis anterior vena cava or the Iliakalgefäßes. Stenosis strictures can occur in any part of the ureter, more often at ureteropelvinen than at ureterovesikulären transition (primary megaureter). Consequences are infections, hematuria and obstruction. improve stenosis with time and growth, but a relief of the ureter or reimplantation may be necessary if the dilation increases or present infection. Each obstruction requires surgical intervention. In a Pyeloplasty ureteropelvic junction (excision of the disabled segment and reanastomosis) can be carried out by open, laparoscopic or robot-assisted techniques. The Ureterocele Ureterocele denotes a protrusion of the distal end of the ureter into the bladder stone formation and may lead to loss of renal function by increasing obstructive dilatation to a Ureteroektasie, hydronephrosis, infection, may occasionally. The defect is removed endoscopically or openly. If the Ureterocele includes the upper pole of a Doppelureters, the treatment of the function of the kidneys segment depends on, as often a renal dysplasia is present. If the affected segment has no function or significant renal dysplasia is present, it prefers a resection of the kidney and ureter segment involved to remove the obstruction. In rare cases, the ureterocele can also occur on the neck of the bladder, leading to bladder outlet obstruction. In girls, this may show as an interlabial mass.