AIDS-defining cancers in HIV-infected patients, Kaposi’s sarcoma, lymphoma, Burkitt (or equivalent term) lymphoma, immunoblastic (or equivalent term) lymphoma, primary, CNS cervical carcinoma, invasive Other cancers that drastically in the frequency or severity seem to have increased, including Hodgkin’s lymphoma (especially the mixed Zellularitäts- and lymphocyte decreased subtypes) anal cancer testicular cancer melanoma Other skin and superficial eye cancers the leiomyosarcoma is a rare complication in HIV-infected children. the rates are other common cancers (eg. as lung, head and neck and cervical cancer, hepatoma) in HIV-infected patients is many times higher than in the general population. This finding may reflect at least partly the increased exposure to the viruses, or toxins that cause these types of cancer: Hepatitis B and C for hepatoma, cervical cancer and HPV for anal carcinoma and alcohol, and tobacco for lung and head and neck carcinomas. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma The Inzidenzdes non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is in HIV-infected patients from 50 to 200 times higher in most cases is aggressive B-cell lymphomas with a histologically highly malignant subtype. At diagnosis extranodal sites are often involved, these include bone marrow, GI tract and other locations that are unusual in non-HIV-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, for. B. the CNS and body cavities (for. Example, pleura, pericardium and peritoneum). Common complaints are for. B. widening fast lymph nodes or extranodal swelling and systemic symptoms (eg. As weight loss, night sweats or fever). The diagnosis is made by biopsy, with histopathological and immunochemical analysis of tumor cells. Conspicuous circulating lymphocytes or unexpected cytopenias indicate a bone marrow involvement and do a bone marrow biopsy is required. For tumor staging a CSF examination and a CT scan or MRI of the thorax, abdomen and other areas may be required with suspected tumor. A poor prognosis is predicted by the following: CD4 cell count <100 / ul age> 35 years Poor functional status bone marrow involvement Past opportunistic infections Highly malignant histological subtype The treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with different regimens of systemic chemotherapy with multiple drugs, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone and etoposide comprises. These drugs are with i.v. Rituximab and an anti-CD20 antibody combined and antiretroviral therapy (ART), prophylactic antibiotics and antifungals, and hematologic growth factors added. The therapy may be limited by severe myelosuppression, especially when combinations of myelosuppressive anticancer or anti-retroviral agents are used. Radiation therapy can shrink large tumor masses and help to control pain or bleeding. Primary CNS lymphoma The incidence of CNS lymphoma is significantly increased in HIV-infected patients with very low CD4 cell counts. These lymphomas are made of medium or high-grade malignant B-cells originating from CNS tissue. These lymphomas do not spread systemically, but the prognosis is poor; the median survival is <6 months. The clinical symptoms are made for. B. from headaches, seizures, neurological deficits (z. B. cranial nerve palsies) and changes in mental status. The acute treatment requires control of cerebral edema by corticosteroids. Although radiation therapy to the entire brain and an anti-tumor chemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents or rituximab are often used, none of these therapies have been rigorously evaluated. In observational studies of ART and in one clinical study of rituximab survival appeared improved. Cervical cancer in women infected with HIV, the infection rate for human papillomavirus (HPV) is increased, there is a persistence of oncogenic subtypes (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35 and 39) and the prevalence of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia (CIN) is at 60% increased, but the incidence of cervical cancer is not proven to increase. However, cervical cancer, when they occur, extensive, difficult to handle and have higher recurrence rates after treatment. Among the confirmed risk factors for cervical cancer in HIV-infected women include: Infection with HPV subtype 16 or 18 CD4 cell count of <200 / ul age> 34 years treatment of CIN or cervical cancer is not affected by HIV infection. Frequent Pap smears are important to control progression. An ART can lead to control of HPV infection and regression of CIN, but has no clear effect on the tumor. Carcinoma of the anus and vulva squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (Anorectal carcinomas) and vulva (vulvar cancer) caused by the same oncogenic HPV types, such as cervical cancer and are more common in HIV-infected patients. The increased incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and -Krebsarten in these patients appears to be due to behaviors at high risk (eg, anal sex received.) And immunosuppression caused by HIV causes; ART reduces the risk of disease progression eventually. Analdysplasien are common, and squamous cell carcinoma can be very aggressive. The therapy involves surgical excision, radiation therapy and chemotherapy with mitomycin or cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil.