(Rabbit fever, “deer fly fever”)

Tularemia is a febrile illness which is caused by Francisella tularensis; it can cause a typhoid-like symptoms. Symptoms are a primary local ulcerative lesion, regional lymphadenopathy, severe systemic symptoms, and occasionally an atypical pneumonia. The diagnosis is made primarily epidemiologically and clinically and supported by serological tests. Treatment is with streptomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin or doxycycline.

There are 7 clinical syndromes, tularemia are assigned (see table: Types of tularemia); clinical manifestations vary depending on the type of exposure to the organism.

Tularemia is a febrile illness which is caused by Francisella tularensis; it can cause a typhoid-like symptoms. Symptoms are a primary local ulcerative lesion, regional lymphadenopathy, severe systemic symptoms, and occasionally an atypical pneumonia. The diagnosis is made primarily epidemiologically and clinically and supported by serological tests. Treatment is with streptomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin or doxycycline. There are 7 clinical syndromes, tularemia are assigned (see table: Types of tularemia); clinical manifestations vary depending on the type of exposure to the organism. The causative agent, F. tularensis is a small, pleomorphic, non-motile, non-spore-forming aerobic rod-shaped bacterium, which enters into the body by ingestion of contaminated food or water bite of an infected Arthropodenvektors (ticks, deer flies, fleas), inhalation, direct contact with infected tissue or material tularemia is not transmitted from person to person. Types of tularemia Type Frequency Note Ulceroglandular The most common primary lesions on the hands or fingers with regional lymphadenitis typhoidal † Often systemic disease without reference to the site of inoculation or localized infection Okuloglandulär unusual conjunctivitis with inflammation the ipsilateral preauricular, submandibular or cervical lymph nodes, probably by inoculating an eye from an infected finger or hand caused Glandular Rarely regional lymphadenitis, but no primary lesion and often cervical lymphadenopathy, suggesting oral ingestion of the bacteria. Pneumonic * Unusually Penetrates with asymmetrical hilar adenopathy, with or without bloody pleural effusion Oropharyngeal Rarely sore throat and cervical lymphadenopathy due to ingestion of contaminated food or water Septikämisch † Rare Severe systemic disease with hypotension, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiple organ failure * Tularämische pneumonia can be primarily available n complicate or any form of tularemia. † A hematogenous spread to different organs (eg. As the lungs, bones, pericardium, peritoneum, heart valves, meningitis) can also occur. The pathogen can penetrate through apparently intact skin, but rather enter through micro-lesions. There are two types of F. tularensis: A: This type is a more virulent in humans serotype, which usually occurs in rabbits and rodents in the US and Canada. Type B: This type usually causes a slight ulceroglandular infection and is found in water and aquatic animals in Europe and Asia. Hunters, butchers, farmers and fur traders are most likely infected. During the winter months, most cases occur through contact with infected wild rabbits into existence (especially during skinning). In the summer months infections are usually after contact with other infected animals or birds before or through bites from infected ticks or other arthropods. Only rarely, by eating undercooked meat is not completely, drinking contaminated water or mowing fields in endemic areas to illness. In the Western industrialized States shall ticks, various types of brakes and direct contact with infected animals other sources of infection. A transmission from human to human has not been observed. A special risk of infection for laboratory personnel, as infection can be easily acquired during normal handling specimens. Tularemia is a potential bioterroristisches agent. In disseminated disease cases, there are characteristic focal necrotic lesions in various stages of development that are scattered all over the body. These are 1 mm to 8 cm in size and whitish-yellowish; they are externally seen as primary lesions on fingers, eyes or mouth and are often found in lymph nodes, spleen, liver, kidneys and lungs. When pneumonia occurs necrotic foci in the lungs. Although it can cause severe systemic toxic symptoms, no toxins have been detected so far. Symptoms and complaints The outbreak of tularemia begins suddenly, about 1-10 (usually 2-4) days after contact with a headache, chills, nausea, vomiting, fever with 39.5 to 40 ° C and severe exhaustion. It comes to extreme physical weakness, recurrent chills and sweating durchnässendem. Clinical manifestations depend to some extent on the type of exposure (see table: types of tularemia). Tularemia pictures courtesy of Dr. Brachmann on Public Health Image Library of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. var model = {thumbnailUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/tularemia_high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw=350’ imageUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/tularemia_high_de.jpg?la = en & thn = 0 ‘, title:’ tularemia ‘description:’ u003Ca id = “v37895926 ” class = “”anchor “” u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = “”para “” u003e u003cp u003eBei ulceroglandular tularemia occurs an inflamed papule on the finger or hand on (above); it is rapidly pustular and ulcerated and forms a clean ulcerous crater with a sparse

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