The toxic amblyopia is a reduction of visual acuity, which is probably the consequence of a toxic reaction in the orbital portion (papillomakuläres bundle) of the optic nerve. It can be caused by a variety of toxic and food-related factors and probably other, unknown factors. The main symptom is a painless loss of vision. The diagnosis is made on the basis of medical history and visual field examination. The treatment is to avoid suspicious toxic materials and improve nutrition.
The toxic amblyopia is a reduction of visual acuity, which is probably the consequence of a toxic reaction in the orbital portion (papillomakuläres bundle) of the optic nerve. It can be caused by a variety of toxic and food-related factors and probably other, unknown factors. The main symptom is a painless loss of vision. The diagnosis is made on the basis of medical history and visual field examination. The treatment is to avoid suspicious toxic materials and improve nutrition. Etiology Toxic amblyopia is bilateral and usually symmetrical. Malnutrition and vitamin deficiency (eg. As vitamins B1 or B12 or folate) may be the cause, particularly in alcoholics. Pure tobacco-induced amblyopia is rare. Lead, methanol, chloramphenicol, digoxin, ethambutol and many other chemicals can damage the optic nerve. Risk factors are also believed to protein and Antioxidanzienmängel. A toxic amblyopia may happen along with other diet-related disorders, such as Strachan syndrome (polyneuropathy and orogenital dermatitis). Symptoms and discomfort in patients with toxic amblyopia blurred vision or clouding usually develop over days to weeks. A small beginning central scotoma or perizentrales is slowly widening, usually affects both the fixation and the blind spot (Zentrozäkal-scotoma) and restricts vision increasingly. After methanol ingestion may lead to total blindness, while other diet-related disorders usually do not lead to severe vision loss. Retinal anomalies occur usually not, but later in a temporal Papillenblässe can develop. Mainly diagnostic clinical evaluation In malnutrition or toxic or chemical exposure in the history along with typical bilateral scotoma in the visual field examination is justified treatment. Laboratory tests are performed for the detection of lead, methanol, suspected nutritional deficiencies, and other suspected toxins. Prognosis in patients with decreased vision may improve this, if the cause be treated or removed quickly. If the optic nerve once atrophied, vision does not recover normally. Treatment There is a causal treatment of toxic amblyopia visual aids The cause of the patient’s toxic amblyopia is treated. Exposure to toxic substances should be terminated immediately. Alcohol and other potentially harmful chemicals or drugs should be avoided. Treatment with chelating agents is indicated for lead poisoning. Dialysis, fomepizole, ethanol, or a combination of these is used in methanol poisoning. Treatment with per oral or parenteral B vitamins and / or folic acid can cause regression of visual loss in cases where malnutrition is suspected as the cause, as long as no severe vision loss has not yet occurred. Low vision aids (eg. As magnifiers, large print devices, talking clocks) may be helpful. The role of antioxidants is not yet fully understood. Your application could be justified on a theoretical basis; However, there is no evidence of efficacy, and yet no vulnerable population group has been defined that will receive antioxidants as supplements. Summary Toxic amblyopia is a reduction in visual acuity, usually caused by drugs or toxins, or nutritional deficiencies, particularly in alcoholics. Vision loss is usually gradual and partial. The diagnosis is mainly clinical (z. B. bilateral scotoma, suggestive anamnesis). Treat the cause (z. B. cessation of exposure to a drug or a toxin, improve nutrition).