Under thoracotomy refers to the surgical opening of the chest. It is used for the diagnosis and treatment of lung disease when lead or non-invasive methods to diagnose any produce inconclusive results. Contraindications contraindications are the usual in an operation and include bleeding disorder or anticoagulation, which can not be corrected acute cardiac ischemia instability or inadequacy important organ systems Procedure There are three types of access routes: Limited anterior or lateral thoracotomy: A 6-8 cm long intercostal incision allows access to the front structures. Posterolateral thoracotomy: The posterolateral approach allows interventions on pleura, hilum, mediastinum and the entire lung. “Sternal splitting incision” (median sternotomy): In the two lungs access is desired, such as in lung volume reduction surgery, a sternal splitting incision is used. Patients who undergo a limited thoracotomy need a chest tube for 1-2 days and can be released back often after 3-4 days. Indications The most important indications for thoracotomy: lobectomy pneumonectomy lobectomy and pneumonectomy Both are performed for the treatment of lung cancer most often. The video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has largely replaced the thoracotomy when taking open pleural and lung biopsies. Complications The possible complications are due to the general anesthesia risk, the risk of intraoperative injury and prolonged hospital stay, which is associated with greater postoperative symptoms, more severe than in any other biopsy procedures. The biggest dangers are bleeding infection pneumothorax bronchopleural fistula reactions to anesthetics, the mortality rates for thoracotomy in the range of 0.5-1.8%.