Infections Of The Esophagus

An inflammation of the Speiseröhe occurs most often in patients with immune deficiency. Primary pathogens are Candida albicans, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus. Symptoms include odynophagia and chest pain. The diagnosis is made by endoscopy and by pathogens cultures. Treatment is with appropriate medication against fungi or viruses. An inflammation of the Speiseröhe occurs most often in patients with immune deficiency. Primary pathogens are Candida albicans, herpes simplex virus and…

September 3, 2018
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Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy

(IgA nephropathy, Berger’s disease) IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a deposition of IgA immune complexes in the glomeruli. It manifests itself as a slowly progressive hematuria, proteinuria and renal failure often. The diagnosis is based on the findings of urine and renal biopsy. The prognosis is generally good. As treatment options are ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants and polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid into consideration. IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is…

September 3, 2018
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Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

(Extrinsic allergic alveolitis) Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is associated with cough, dyspnea and fatigue disorder that (often professional) is caused by sensitization and subsequent hypersensitivity to environmental antigens. There are acute, subacute and chronic courses; all forms are characterized by an acute interstitial inflammation and the development of granulomas and fibrosis during long-term exposure. The diagnosis is made by a combination of history, physical examination, imaging, BAL and biopsy. The short-term…

September 3, 2018
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Hiatal Hernia

Under a hiatal hernia is understood diaphragmaticus a Vorstülpung of the stomach through the hiatus. Most hernias are asymptomatic, but the increased incidence of acid reflux can lead to symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD. The diagnosis is made by a barium swallow. The treatment depends on the symptoms of GERD, if they exist. Under a hiatal hernia is understood diaphragmaticus a Vorstülpung of the stomach through the hiatus. Most…

September 3, 2018
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Hereditary Nephritis

(Alport syndrome) is a hereditary nephritis is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by a nephritic syndrome characterized, often with hearing loss and (d h hematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, renal failure possible..) – rarely – ophthalmological symptoms. The cause is a genetic mutation, the type IV collagen in question. Diagnosis is made by medical history, including family history, urinalysis, and biopsy (kidney or skin). The treatment is the same as that in…

September 3, 2018
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Granuloma Annulare

The granuloma annulare is a benign, chronic idiopathic disease, which is accompanied by papules or nodules that spread peripherally and form a ring around healthy or slightly dented skin. The granuloma annulare is a benign, chronic idiopathic disease, which is accompanied by papules or nodules that spread peripherally and form a ring around healthy or slightly dented skin. Skin lesion (annularly) Figure provided by Thomas Habif, M.D. var model =…

September 3, 2018
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Genetic Testing

Genetic testing is part of routine prenatal care and ideally occurs before conception. The scope of the desired by a woman genetic testing depends on how important factors such as the probability of a fetal abnormality in risk factors and the results of a previous study, the probability of a complication of invasive fetal examination The importance of knowing the test results (eg. as would the pregnancy be terminated when…

September 3, 2018
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Gastrointestinal Vascular Malformations

There are a variety of congenital or acquired syndromes related to changes in blood vessels in the mucosa or submucosa of the GIT. These vessels can cause recurrent bleeding, but they are rarely massive. The diagnosis is made by endoscopy and angiography only in individual cases. Treatment is usually by endoscopic hemostasis, sometimes by angiographic embolization or surgical resection. (See also Overview of gastrointestinal bleeding.) There are a variety of…

September 3, 2018
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Fractures Of The Metatarsals 5. Os

Fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal bone may occur at the base or on the shaft (diaphysis) fractures of the diaphysis may be acute or stress fractures. Since there are many different treatments and prognoses for these fractures, an accurate diagnosis is important. The diagnosis is made radiographically. Treatment depends on the location of the fracture. Pain, swelling and tenderness are usually well localized at the fracture site….

September 3, 2018
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Folliculitis

The folliculitis is a bacterial infection of the hair follicles. However, usually the folliculitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, sometimes by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (hot tub folliculitis) or other microorganisms. The hot tub folliculitis caused by inadequate treatment of water with chlorine or bromine. The folliculitis is a bacterial infection of the hair follicles. However, usually the folliculitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, sometimes by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (hot tub folliculitis) or other microorganisms….

September 3, 2018
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