The substances involved are generally among the 10 classes of drugs that typically cause substance-related disorders. enable these substances directly all the reward system of the brain and produce feelings of pleasure. Activation can be so intense that the patients have an intense craving for the substance and neglect normal activities in order to get this up and use.

Substance use disorders are a type of substance-related disorder that involve a pathological pattern of behavior in which the patient continues to use a substance, even though they have experienced considerable problems through the use. It can also physiological phenomena, including changes in the circuitry of the brain. The substances involved are generally among the 10 classes of drugs that typically cause substance-related disorders. enable these substances directly all the reward system of the brain and produce feelings of pleasure. Activation can be so intense that the patients have an intense craving for the substance and neglect normal activities in order to get this up and use. The most common terms used “addiction”, “abuse” and “dependence” have often been used with regard to drug use, but these terms are too weak and variable defined to be very useful in the systematic diagnosis. A substance use disorder is more comprehensive and has less negative connotation. Leisure and illegal drug use Illegal drug use, although problematic because it is illegal to include not always a substance abuse. In contrast, legal substances such as alcohol and prescription drugs (cannabis and in a growing number of US states) can participate in a substance abuse. Problems that are caused by abuse of prescription and illegal drugs go, across all social strata. Recreational drug use, though not sanctioned usually by the company, is not a new phenomenon and is the one form or another for centuries. People take substances for various reasons one: To change the mood or improve As part of religious ceremonies to achieve spiritual enlightenment To improve performance for some users it does not come to the obvious damage caused by their preferred episodic consumption in relatively low doses, as this consumption patterns preclude a clinical toxicity, development of tolerance and physical dependence. Many recreational drugs (eg. As raw opium, alcohol, marijuana, caffeine, hallucinogenic mushrooms, coca leaves) are “natural”, d. H. vegetable origin; they contain a variety of psychoactive compounds in relatively low concentration and are not isolated psychotropic chemicals. Etiology Most people usually start with an experiment, then proceed to occasional use over and then gradually go to hard use over and sometimes for substance abuse. However, this progression is complex and not fully understood. In summary it can be said: The ongoing process is dependent on the interaction between substance users and the environment. Drug medications in Class 10 differ in how likely it is to cause a substance abuse. The probability is called addiction load (addiction liability). Addiction load depends on a combination of factors, including route of administration, rate at which the drug passes through the blood-brain barrier and the reward pathway stimulates time effect to onset The ability tolerance and / or withdrawal symptoms induce also be substances that legally and / or readily available (eg., alcohol, tobacco) are probably more likely taken at the beginning and there is a risk that the use is becoming increasingly problematic. Moreover, if the assessment regarding the risk. The use of a particular substance decreases subsequent experiments can follow with the substance and / or recreational use, which increases the risk of abuse. Fluctuations in risk perception are influenced by several factors, including insights regarding medical and psychiatric consequences of the use and in terms of social consequences. During the treatment of medical illness or after a surgical or dental treatments patients are routinely prescribed opioids. A significant portion of these drugs are lost and are an important source for children, teenagers and adults who want to use them for non-medical purposes. In response, the need was emphasized that opioids are appropriately prescribed better in smaller quantities and so for the expected duration of the pain, promoting the safe storage of leftover drugs and redemption programs expanded werden.Anwender include predisposing factors for consumers emphatically: Physical characteristics personal characteristics The circumstances and disorders The physical properties are probably genetic factors. Although scientists have long tried to identify specific factors that they have discovered a few biochemical or metabolic differences between people who develop substance abuse and those who do not. Personal qualities are not clearly a strong factor, although people with low self-control (impulsivity) or a high degree of risk-taking and novelty seeking are at increased risk for developing substance abuse. However, the concept of an “addiction personality” that has been variously described by some behavioral scientists to prove this little scientific evidence. A series of circumstances and coexisting disorders seem to increase the risk. For example, people who are sad, emotionally disturbed or socially alienated, may have the impression that these feelings are temporarily weakened by a drug; this can lead to increased usage and sometimes substance abuse. Patients with other, unrelated, psychiatric disorders have to develop a substance abuse increased risk. Patients with chronic pain (eg. As back pain, pain due to sickle cell disease, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia) often require opioids for relief. Many patients develop a substance abuse as a result. Many of these patients nichtopiodische drugs and other treatments are not sufficient often to pain and suffering adequately lindern.Begleitumst√§nde ( “setting”) Cultural and social factors are very important in the initiation and maintenance (or relapse) of substance use Observing of family members (eg. as parents, older siblings) and peers who use drugs increases the risk of starting the drug. Peers have a particularly strong influence in adolescents (drug and substance use in adolescents). People trying to get away from a substance, will find it much harder when they are surrounded by others who also use this substance. Physicians can inadvertently to harmful use (abuse) of psychotropic substances help by prescribing patients overzealous drugs to reduce stress. Many social factors, including mass media contribute to the expectations of the Patientenbei that substances should be to deal with all the negative stress. Specific diagnostic criteria The diagnosis of substance abuse is based on the identification of a pathological pattern of behavior continues to use a substance in the patient, despite significant problems related to the use occur. There are 11 criteria, which are divided into four categories. Impaired control over the use of the person taking the substance in larger amounts or for a longer time than originally planned, the person wants to stop the use of the substance or restrict People spend considerable time trying to get the material to use or from to recover the effects of the substance. The person has an intense desire (craving), according to the material social impairment, the person is not able to fulfill the important commitments at work, at school or at home. The person using the substance further, although this social or interpersonal problems caused (or worsened) the person gives up or reduces important social, occupational or recreational activities because of drug use Risky use of the person using the substance in physically dangerous situations (eg. As the driving or in dangerous social circumstances) the person used the substance on, even though she knows that is thereby degraded a medical or psychological problem Pharmacological symptoms * tolerance: the need for a person to increase their dosage continues to intoxication or the same desired effects, or the effect of the administered dose, increases over time. Withdrawal: Unwanted physical effects occur when the drug is no longer taken, or if the effect of the drug is counteracted by a specific antagonist. * Note that some drugs, especially opioids, sedatives / hypnotics and stimulants to tolerance and / or may cause withdrawal symptoms even though these legitimate medical reasons as prescribed and for relatively short periods (<1 week with opioids) are taken. Withdrawal symptoms that develop after such a reasonable medical application, do not count as criteria for the diagnosis of substance abuse. Of people who have ? 2 of these criteria within a period of 12 months, it is believed that they have one substance abuse. The severity of substance abuse is determined by the number of symptoms: Mild: 2 to 3 criteria Moderate: 4 to 5 criteria Severe: ? 6 criteria therapy varies depending on the substance and circumstances the treatment of a Substanst√∂rung is a challenge and one or more of the following options: acute detoxification, prevention and treatment of withdrawal, setting (or rarely, reduce) the use, maintenance of abstinence. Various phases of treatment can be treated with medication and / or counseling and support. Special methods and questions are discussed under the specific substance elsewhere in the MSD Manual. With increasing evidence and a better understanding of the biological processes underlying the compulsive drug use based to substance abuse has solid established as a medical disease. As such, these diseases are susceptible to various forms of treatment, including self-help groups (Alcoholics Anonymous and other Twelve Step programs); Psychotherapy (. Eg increased motivation therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, relapse prevention); and drugs that of agonist therapy (eg. for example nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco disorder, methadone and buprenorphine for opioid use disorder), to novel approaches that are currently under investigation, rich. Concentrate on accurate identification of patients with substance use disorders and a referral for special treatment will help tremendously in reducing episodes and impact on society Key points substance abuse involves a pathological behavior patterns continue using a substance in the patient, despite significant problems occur due to the use. Main Festa functions are categorized into limited control over the use, social impairment, risky use and pharmacological symptoms. The terms "addiction", "abuse" and "dependence" are vague and value-laden; it is preferable to talk about substance use disorder and to focus on the specific characteristics and their severity. The consequences and treatment of a substance-related disorder vary depending on the substance strong. More information Al-Anon Family Groups Alcoholics Anonymous Narcotics Anonymous World Services National Institutes on Drug Abuse Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

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