Streptococci are gram-positive aerobic bacteria, which can cause many diseases, incl. Pharyngitis, pneumonia, wound and skin infections, sepsis and endocarditis. Symptoms vary depending on the infected organ. As a result, diseases rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis can occur. Most strains are susceptible to penicillin macrolide-resistant strains have occurred recently.

(See also pneumococcal infections; rheumatic fever; and tonsillopharyngitis)

Streptococci are gram-positive aerobic bacteria, which can cause many diseases, incl. Pharyngitis, pneumonia, wound and skin infections, sepsis and endocarditis. Symptoms vary depending on the infected organ. As a result, diseases rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis can occur. Most strains are susceptible to penicillin macrolide-resistant strains have occurred recently. (See also pneumococcal infections; rheumatic fever; and tonsillopharyngitis) classification of streptococci When grown on sheep blood agar three different streptococci types can be distinguished primarily: √ü-hemolytic streptococci produce zones of clear hemolysis around each colony. ?-hemolytic streptococci (often referred to as viridans streptococci) are surrounded only partially due to hemolysis of a greenish discolored zone. gamma-hemolytic streptococci are not hemolytic. The further classification is based on carbohydrates in the cell wall and divides the streptococci in the Lancefield groups A to H and K to T (see Table: classification of streptococci). Viridans streptococci form a separate group that is difficult to classify. In the Lancefield classification enterococci were first divided among the group D streptococci. More recently, enterococci were classified as a separate genus. Classification of Streptococcus Lancefield group species hemolysis Associated diseases therapy A S. pyogenes ? pharyngitis, tonsillitis, wound and skin infections, sepsis, scarlet fever, pneumonia, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, necrotizing fasciitis Rasche surgical treatment ?-lactam (in the generally broad Spectrum to the etiology identified; GABHS if it is confirmed penicillin or cefazolin may be used) plus clindamycin B S. agalactiae ? sepsis, postpartum or neonatal sepsis, meningitis, skin infections, endocarditis, septic arthritis, UTIs penicillin or ampicillin, cephalosporin, vancomycin C and G S. equi, S. canis ? pharyngitis, pneumonia, cellulitis, pyoderma, erysipelas, impetigo, wound infections, puerperal sepsis, neonatal sepsis, endocarditis, septic arthritis penicillin, vancomycin, cephalosporins, macrolides (variable SENS friendliness) D enterococcal: Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium Nichtenterokokkale: S. bovis, S. equinus ? or ? endocarditis, urinary tract infections, intra-abdominal infections, cellulitis, wound infection and an accompanying bacteremia penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin (plus an aminoglycoside for severe infections) vancomycin-resistant enterococci: streptogramins (quinupristin / dalfopristin), oxazolidinones (linezolid), lipopeptides (daptomycin) p gallolyticus (formerly S. bovis biotype I) Kolonadenome or carcinomas viridans * S. mutans, S. sanguis, S. salivarius, S. mitior, S. milleri ? or ? endocarditis, bacteremia, meningitis, local infection, abscess (especially S. milleri) penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin (plus an aminoglycoside in severe infections ), other antibiotics based on suis in vitro susceptibility S. meningitis, sometimes Toxisches- shock syndrome S. iniae cellulitis, invasive infections of fish penicillin * Ents not prechen specific serogroups. GABHS = Group A ?-hemolytic streptococci. Many virulence factors streptococcal virulence factors make such. B. Streptolysine, DNases and hyaluronidase that contribute to tissue destruction and spread of infection. Some strains liberate exotoxins that activate specific T cells and trigger the release of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor, interleukins and other immune modulators. These cytokines activate the complement, coagulation-fibrinolysis and systems, leading to shock, organ failure and death. caused by streptococcal diseases The clinically most significant Streptokokkenart is S. pyogenes is the ?-h√§molytisierend and belongs to the Lancefield group A, which is why they are referred to as Group A ?-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS). The most common acute illnesses due to GABHS pharyngitis are skin infections Furthermore, there is ? 2 weeks after infection occasionally delayed effects not suppurative complications (rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis). caused by other streptococcal species diseases are less common and usually manifest as soft tissue infections or endocarditis (see Table: Classification of streptococci). Some non-GABHS infections mainly occur in certain populations (eg. As group B streptococci in newborns and women). Infections can spread to regional lymph nodes through the infected tissue and along lymphatic vessels. You can also cause local suppurative complications such. B. peritonsillar, otitis media, sinusitis and bacteremia. The pus formation depends on the severity of the infection and the susceptibility of the tissue. Among the other serious streptococcal infections include sepsis, puerperal sepsis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Streptococcal A streptococcal pharyngitis is usually caused by GABHS. Approximately 20% of patients have a sore throat, fever, a gloomy red pharynx and a purulent Tonsillarexsudat. The remaining patients have less prominent symptoms and the clinical picture is similar to a viral pharyngitis. The cervical and submaxillary lymph nodes may enlarge and swell. A streptococcal pharyngitis can lead to peritonsillar. Coughing, laryngitis and nasal congestion are not characteristic of a pharyngeal infection with streptococci; its presence has another cause out (usually viral or allergic). Up to 20% of people may have an asymptomatic carrier state. Streptococcal Image courtesy of the Public Health Image Library of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. var model = {thumbnailUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/streptococcal_pharyngitis_orig_high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw=350’ imageUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/streptococcal_pharyngitis_orig_high_de.jpg?la = en & thn = 0 ‘, title:’ streptococcal ‘description:’ u003Ca id = “v38396451 ” class = “”anchor “” u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = “”para “” u003e u003cp u003eDer throat is red and swollen u003c / p u003e u003c / div u003e ‘credits’. Image courtesy of the Public Health Image Library of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’

Health Life Media Team

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