Cardiovascular examination (Sudden cardiac death in athletes.) A general examination for all children and adults should start with a thorough medical history and query the following points: Known high blood pressure or heart murmurs chest pain Belastungssynkope or nichterklärbare syncope (including convulsive syncope), near-syncope, chest pain or palpitations family history of sudden cardiac death at age <50 years old, arrhythmias, dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, long QT syndrome or Marfan syndrome presence of risk factors for coronary heart disease in adults (Overview of coronary heart disease: risk factors) to physical examination should routinely include a blood pressure measurement on both arms, a cardiac auscultation in supine and standing and a examinati ng to features of Marfan syndrome. These measures aim to identify in apparently healthy adults or young people stayed a hidden risk of life-threatening cardiac events such. As cardiac arrhythmias, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or other structural heart disease. Further investigation based on the clinical suspicion of certain disorders (eg. B. load tests for coronary heart disease, echocardiography for structural heart disease, an ECG for arrhythmia or Long-QT syndrome). Routine stress test without the presence of symptoms, symptoms or risk factors are not recommended. Other research methods Cardiovascular risk factors are more common than cardiovascular risk factors. Adults are asked about the following: Earlier or current musculoskeletal injuries (including light-induced dislocations) Adults are asked for arthritic diseases, particularly those exposed to heavy stress joints such as hips, knees, ankles. Concussions asthma symptoms * indicate a systemic infection heat-related illness stroke Two groups of people with risk of injury are often overlooked: Boys who are physically developed late or very small, seem to have a higher risk of injury in contact sports when they face larger or more children compete. Overweight or obese people who do sports, have a greater risk of musculoskeletal problems because the excess weight and the forces involved mean a huge strain on the joints and tissues. A risk is the overload injury and soft tissue inflammation, especially when people increase the intensity and duration of exercise too fast. A long-term risk of osteoarthritis, which affects the weight-bearing joints. Another risk can cause injury by sudden stops and starts in activities that require jumping or a high degree of flexibility. Adolescents and young adults should be prompted for illegal and performance-enhancing drugs (See also the For girls and young women an investigation should ask for a late menarche. In girls and young women should be paid to the so-called. Sportswomen triad (a combination of eating disorder, amenorrhea or other menstrual disorders and decreased bone density). Two questions are validated screening measures for Eating Disorders: Have you ever had an eating disorder? Are you happy with your weight? Contraindications There are no absolute contraindications for participation in the sport. Exceptions in children include: myocarditis, increasing the risk of sudden cardiac death increases Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, in which an increase in heart rate may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death. Acute splenomegaly or recent infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus infection) because splenic rupture is a risk. Fever, which reduces exercise capacity, promotes the risk of heat-related illness and may be an indication of illness possibly significant diarrhea and / or recent significant vomiting because dehydration is a risk exceptions in adults are: Angina pectoris More recently, MI (within 6 weeks) Known aneurysms in the brain or large vessels Relative contraindications are common and lead to recommend precautionary measures or to favor certain sports. People with a history of frequent and easy triggered dislocations or more concussions (Sport-related concussion) should participate in sports, to which no collisions are. Men with one testicle should wear a jock strap for most contact sports. People at risk for heat intolerance and dehydration (z. B. People with diabetes, cystic fibrosis, or previous heat-related illness) should often hydrate during activity. People with suboptimal seizure control should swimming, weight lifting and to prevent injury from others, avoid sports like archery and shooting. People who have asthma need to closely monitor their symptoms.


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