Specific phobic disorders are characterized by persistent, unrealistic, intense fear (phobia) before specific situations, circumstances or objects. The phobias lead to anxiety and avoidance behavior. The causes of phobias are unknown. The diagnosis is made on the basis of medical history. The therapy is mainly an exposure therapy.
A specific phobia refers to fear and anxiety in certain situations and against objects (see Table: Common phobias *). The situation or object be avoided if possible, and when exposed to the anxiety currently developed very quickly. The fear may be up to a panic attack increase (panic attacks and panic disorder). People with specific phobias know their fear is unfounded and exaggerated.
Specific phobic disorders are characterized by persistent, unrealistic, intense fear (phobia) before specific situations, circumstances or objects. The phobias lead to anxiety and avoidance behavior. The causes of phobias are unknown. The diagnosis is made on the basis of medical history. The therapy is mainly an exposure therapy. A specific phobia refers to fear and anxiety in certain situations and against objects (see Table: Common phobias *). The situation or object be avoided if possible, and when exposed to the anxiety currently developed very quickly. The fear may be up to a panic attack increase (panic attacks and panic disorder). People with specific phobias know their fear is unfounded and exaggerated. Specific phobias are the most common anxiety disorders. Some most most widespread of the fear of animals (Zoophobia), height (acrophobia), and thunderstorms and natural forces (Astra phobia or Brontophobie) are. About 13% of women and 4% of men are affected in a 1-year period from a specific phobia. Some specific phobias cause little discomfort-z. As when city dwellers fear snakes (Ophidiophobie), provided that they do not have to hike in an area where there are snakes. However, other phobias strongly interfere with the functioning-as in people who have to work in an upper floor of a skyscraper, feel trapped, confined spaces (claustrophobia), such as elevators. At least 5% of the population suffer to some degree from a fear of blood (Hämophobie), syringes (Tyrpanophobie), needles or other sharp objects (Belonephobie) or injury (Traumatophobie). Unlike people with other phobias or anxiety disorders people can actually pass out with a phobia of blood, needles or injuries as a exaggerated vasovagal reflex bradycardia and orthostatic hypotension causes. Symptoms and signs The symptoms depend on the type of phobic disorder. Common phobias phobia * Definition acrophobia fear of high altitude Amathophobie fear of dust Astra phobia fear of thunder and lightning Aviophobie fear of flying Belonephobie fear of needles, pins or other sharp objects Brontophobie fear of thunder claustrophobia fear of confined spaces Eurotophobie fear of female genitalia Gephyrophobie fear of crossing bridges hydrophobicity fear of water Odontiatophobie Fear of the dentist Phartophobie afraid to flatulieren in a public place Phasmophobie fear of ghosts Phobophobie fear of fear or developing a phobia Triskaidekaphobie fear of all things that have to do with the number 13 fear of needles fear of syringes Zoophobia fear of animals (usually spiders, snakes or mice) * There are over 500 named phobias, they are listed in the Phobia List web site. Most are very rare. Diagnosis The diagnosis is made clinically based on the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Patients have a serious, persistent fear or Ang (? 6 months) in front of a particular situation or object, and everything following the situation or object solve almost always immediate fear or anxiety from. Patients actively avoid the situation or object. The fear or anxiety is out of proportion to the actual risk (taking into account socio-cultural norms). The fear, anxiety, and / or avoiding causing significant distress or impair significantly the social or occupational functioning. The fear and anxiety can not be right as another mental disorder characterized (eg, agoraphobia, social anxiety, a stress disorder). Treatment exposure treatment sometimes limited use of a benzodiazepine or ?-adrenergic blocking varies The prognosis for untreated specific phobias because certain unusual situations or objects (eg. B., caves snakes) are easy to avoid, while other situations or objects (eg. B., bridges, thunderstorms) are common and difficult to avoid. Since exposure treatment include many phobic disorders avoidance behavior, exposure treatments, a specific psychotherapy, the treatment of choice. By structuring and assistance from a doctor, exposure exercises prescribed as homework, patients seek what they fear and avoid actively, confront them with it and remain in the situation until their anxiety is gradually falling through the process of so-called. Habituation , As most patients know that their fears are are exaggerated and may be embarrassed by their fears, they are willing to to this therapy, part-d generally. H. to prevent avoidance. Typically, doctors start with a moderate load (z. B. the patients are asked to approach the feared object). When patients palpitations or breathlessness describe when they are in certain situations or at certain locations, they can be taught slow, controlled breathing, or to react with other relaxation-promoting methods. Or they may be asked to observe when their heart rate is accelerating and has started breathing difficulties and when this reaction has changed toward normal. If patients feel at an exposure level of comfort, the stress level is increased (eg. As in touching the dreaded object). Doctors further increase the level of exposure until the patients tolerated a normal interaction with the situation or the object (z. B. ride in an elevator, crossing a bridge). The exposure can be enhanced as quickly as it tolerate the patient; sometimes only a few sessions are needed. Exposure treatment helps> 90% of patients who perform the exercises conscientiously, and is often the only required treatment for specific phobias. The drug short-term treatment with a benzodiazepine (. Eg lorazepam 0.5-1.0 mg po) or a ?-blocker (propranolol is generally preferred: 10-40 mg po), ideally 1-2 h prior to exposure, is usually useful, if I can not avoid exposure to an object or situation (if, for. example, a person with fear of flying flying short term) or where exposure therapy is either not desired or was not successful.