Of the 3000 occurring world beating species, only about 15% of the world’s and 20% of occurring in the United States snakes for humans are toxic because they secrete either a poison or toxic saliva (see Table: Major poisonous snakes on the region). In all US states except Alaska, Maine and Hawaii at least one Giftschlangenart is located. The vast majority of North American venomous snakes belonging to the group of Crotalinae (these are referred to because of a pit like depression on both sides of the head in which a heat sensor is located, also known as pit vipers). Rattlesnakes North American copperhead snakes Wassermokassinottern than 45,000 snake bites (of which 7,000 to 8,000 are poisonous) occur each year in the United States. rattlesnakes here are responsible for most bites and for almost all deaths. Copperhead snakes and to a lesser extent, moccasins make up the remainder of the poisonous snake bites. Coral snake (elapids) and imported species of snakes (in zoos, schools, snake farms, private and professional snake collections) do the rest (<1%) out of poisonous snake bites. Most victims of snake bites are young men aged 17 to 27 years of age, of which again 50% are intoxicated with alcohol and playing around with the snake or intentionally harass them. Most bites take place in the upper extremity. Five or six deaths occur annually in the United States. Children and the elderly are particularly at risk of death. A greater risk of dying from a snake bite, also exists in delayed or insufficient treatment of such a bite. Deadly snake bites are often caused by animals that are kept in captivity than by poisonous snakes encountered in the wild. Outside the US life-threatening snake bites are much more common, the incidence is> 100,000 deaths annually. Significant poisonous snakes red-bellied by region Geographic Region snakes Africa bird snake Boomslang (African tree snake) Erdviper Gabon Viper Mamba Erdviper Macrelaps (Erdvipernart) Puffotter Asia Asian pit vipers king cobra krait (bungarus) Malaysian pit viper Rhabdophis subminiatus Oriental vipers (Daboia) Australia Death Adder pseudechis australis pseudonaja Taipan Tabby Katzennatte r Central and South America Lachesis coral snake Lanzenotter Palm Viper rattlesnake Europe Otter asp Levante Otter sand viper Vipera Xanthina Indian Ocean, Pacific Seekrait (Plattschwanz) sea snakes Middle East Erdviper Egyptian cobra Horned Vipers or desert vipers Macrelaps (Erdvipernart) Palestinian Viper sand viper desert cobra North America copperhead snake coral snake Wassermokassinotter rattlesnake (eg. B. species Diamondback, Sidewinder, TIMBER, prairie, Mojave) Pathophysiology Snake venoms are complex substances; mainly there are proteins with enzymatic activity. Although enzymes play an important role, leading to death properties of the venom can be attributed to certain smaller polypeptide molecules. Most venom components appear to combine with several different physiological receptors in the body of the victim. A classification in neurosurgery, hematology, cardiovascular and Myotoxine can result in the clinical assessment to miscalculations. Grubenottern The complex venom of most North American pit vipers has local effects and systemic effects such as coagulation disorders. The consequences include local tissue damage, edema and ecchymosis cause vascular endothelial damage haemolysis Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) -like (defibrination) syndrome Pulmonary, cardiac, renal and neurological disorders The venom of these snakes leads to an increased permeability of the capillary vessels and so for the extravasation of electrolytes, albumin, red blood cells through the vessel walls both in the affected area as well as in other organs. This process can lungs, myocardium, kidney, peritoneum and rarely affect the CNS. Among the common diseases after severe pit viper poisoning include edema: Initially, edema, hypoalbuminemia developed, and it comes to hemoconcentration. Hypovolemia: Later performs the transfer of blood and tissue fluid in the microcirculation to shock, hypotension, lactic acidosis, and in severe cases, multiple organ failure. The drop in the effective circulating blood volume can contribute to heart and kidney failure. Bleeding: Usually occurs in severe rattlesnake bite at a thrombocytopenia (<20,000 / ul), for serious bites an additional coagulopathy can be grafted. A toxic induced intravascular coagulation can trigger a DIC-like syndrome, which leads to bleeding. Kidney failure: Kidney failure can be caused by severe hypotension, hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, directly nephrotoxic drugs or by a consumptive. The venom of most North American pit vipers only leads to a slight change in the neuromuscular transmission. exclude these, the poison of Mojave rattlesnake is (Crotalus scutulatus) and the diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), which can cause serious neurological problems. Snake bite Image courtesy of Thomas Arnold, M.D. var model = {thumbnailUrl: '/-/media/manual/professional/images/snake_bite_wound_high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw=350' imageUrl: '/-/media/manual/professional/images/snake_bite_wound_high_de.jpg?la = en & thn = 0 ', title:' snake bite ', description:' u003Ca id = "v37898196 " class = ""anchor "" u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = ""para "" u003e u003cp u003eEine blood-filled bladder

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