Since the different taste qualities of flavors depend on that stimulate the olfactory chemoreceptors, to smell and taste affect each other. By a functional disorder of one and the other sensation is often impaired. Smell and taste disorders rarely reach clinical significance or a life-threatening degree; Therefore, doctors often give them little attention, although they may reduce the quality of life. Flavor anomalies may be due to mental disorders, however, you should always be looking for local causes. On the basis of taste perception on both sides of the dorsum of the tongue can with sugar (sweet), salt (salty), vinegar (acid) and quinine (bitter) check the integrity of the glossopharyngeal and facial nerve. While by dry mouth – in heavy smokers, Sjogren’s syndrome, after radiotherapy in head and neck – can worsen the taste sensation or a desquamation of the tongue, drugs can cause (eg with anticholinergic properties or vincristine.) A change in taste. In any case, there is a diffuse involvement of gustatory receptors. If they are (as in Bell’s palsy) is limited to one side of the tongue, a ageusia (loss of taste) is rarely noticed. Smell The inability to certain smells such. As gas or smoke, exercise can be dangerous and should only be dismissed as harmless symptom after systemic or intracranial disorders were excluded. Because often there are other neurological symptoms in the foreground, it is unclear whether a disease of the brain stem can lead to smell and taste disorders (involving the solitary nucleus). A anosmia (complete loss of smell) is probably the most common abnormality. A hyperosmia (increased sensitivity to smell) is usually an expression of a neurotic or histrionic personality structure, but can also occur intermittently with seizure disorders. In sinusitis, partial damage to the olfactory bulb or depression can cause a Dysosmie (unpleasant or distorted perception of smell). Sometimes it is accompanied due to poor dental hygiene with unpleasant taste sensations. A temporal lobe epilepsy (in the region of the dentate gyrus or uncinatus) can cause brief, vivid, unpleasant olfactory hallucinations. a Hyposmia (partial loss of sense of smell) adjust hypogeusia (reduced Schmeckverm√∂gen) – After an acute flu can – usually temporary. How people perceive flavors To distinguish the most flavors, the brain requires information on both the smell and the taste. These sensations are transmitted from receptors in the nose and mouth to different areas of the brain. The olfactory epithelium is an area of ??the nasal mucosa in the upper part of the nasal cavity. The olfactory receptors in the epithelium are specialized nerve cells with cilia that detect odors. Aero genes molecules get into the nasal passage, stimulate the cilia and trigger a nerve impulse, the upwardly through the screen plate and, via a synapse within the olfactory bulb – is transmitted (the distal ends of the first cranial nerve olfactory nerves). The olfactory nerves transmit the pulse to the brain, which interprets the impulse as a distinct odor. The information is also in the middle part of the temporal lobe – the smell and taste Center, where the memory of odors is stored – sent. Thousands of tiny taste buds cover most of the tongue surface. A taste bud contains several types zilienbesetzter taste receptors. Each type recognizes one of the five basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, bitter or savory (also called umami refers to the taste of monosodium glutamate). This taste qualities can be captured anywhere on the tongue, but certain regions are more sensitive to a particular taste quality. Sweet is most easily identified by the tip of the tongue, while salty best felt on the front of the tongue. Sauer is best felt on the tongue sides, bitter feelings against it most likely in the back third of the tongue. Nerve impulses the taste buds are transmitted through the face and glossopharyngealen nerve (cranial nerve VII and IX) to the brain. The brain interprets the combination of impulses from the senses of smell and taste receptors along with other sensory information (eg. As consistency and temperature of the food) to create a distinct flavor as soon as the food is entering the mouth and chewed.


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