Physical examination of thyroid, oral cavity, skin, lymph nodes, testes, prostate and ovaries on malignant tumors is part of a routine medical check.

Malignant tumors can be detected occasionally in asymptomatic patients through regular physical examinations and screening tests. Physical examination of thyroid, oral cavity, skin, lymph nodes, testes, prostate and ovaries on malignant tumors is part of a routine medical check. Screening tests are tests that can be performed in asymptomatic patients at risk (see also Understanding Medical tests and test results. Screening tests). The rationale for this is that mortality can be reduced from neoplastic disease through early diagnosis, therapy fails, the less intense and costs. However, the risk is to receive false-positive test results, after confirmation studies (eg. As biopsy or endoscopy) are carried out, the cause anxiety in the patient and can lead to a significant increase in morbidity and cost. False-negative results can create a false sense of security, which tend patients to ignore occurring as a result symptoms. A tumor screening should be done in the following cases: If specific high-risk groups have been identified for a tumor (. Eg individuals who have a strong family history of breast or prostate cancer), when the disease has an asymptomatic phase during the treatment alter the course would (breast cancer, colon cancer), when the morbidity of the disease is significant, provided that the detection is delayed when a screening test is available that is sensitive, specific and cost the recommended screening tests are changing due to ongoing studies steadily (s. Recommended checkups of the American Cancer Society in asymptomatic patients with normal tumor risk *). Recommended screenings of the American Cancer Society in asymptomatic patients with normal tumor risk * type of tumor testing frequencies breast cancer breast self-examination monthly or regularly from the age of 20 years Clinical breast exam every 3 years between 20 and 39, thereafter every year Mammog Raphie annually from the age of 40 years, magnetic resonance imaging every year (in addition to mammography), starting at the age of 40 years for women only certain high-risk cervical Papanicolaou smear (Pap test), occasionally with test for human papillomavirus (HPV) Pap test every 3 years Age between 21 and 29 years Pap plus HPV test every 5 years, aged between 30 and 65 or Pap test every 3 years After 65 years, no testing, provided that previous tests were conducted and the results were normalUterine and ovarian pelvic examination every 1 to 3 years between 18 and 40 years, after prostate cancer prostate specific antigen As the benefit of screening is blood test unclear annually should the patient and the treating physician the risks and benefits before a prostate cancer screening discuss with each other. Rectal or colon stool test: Fecal occult blood, immunochemical FOBT or stool DNA test or every year, from the age of 50 years Flexible sigmoidoscopy or every 5 years from the age of 50 years, colonoscopy or every 10 years from the age of 50 years CT colonography every 5 years from the age of 50 years * Studies on tumors of the thyroid, oral cavity, skin, lymph nodes, testes and ovaries should be made even in routine medical checks. After American Cancer Society Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cancer

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