Sarcoidosis is a disease caused by non-caseating granulomas in one or more organs and tissues; the etiology is unknown. Most commonly the lungs and lymph system are concerned, however, sarcoidosis can affect all organs. Pulmonary symptoms varies from asymptomatic to exertional dyspnea and rarely pulmonary insufficiency or failure of other organ systems. The diagnosis is usually suspected primarily because of lung involvement and confirmed by a chest x-ray, a biopsy and the exclusion of other granulomatous inflammation. First-line drugs are corticosteroids. The prognosis is excellent with limited expansion ( “limited disease”), but in the more advanced stage ( “advanced disease”) is poor.

Sarcoidosis on but usually occurs between the ages of 20 and 40 years, occasionally even in children and older adults. the prevalence worldwide among black Americans and ethnic northern Europeans, especially. Scandinavians, the highest. The clinical appearance varies greatly depending on ethnicity and ethnic background, and African-American and Puerto Rican have frequently extrathoracic manifestations. Sarcoidosis is more common in women. The incidence is increasing for unknown reasons in the winter and early spring.

Sarcoidosis is a disease caused by non-caseating granulomas in one or more organs and tissues; the etiology is unknown. Most commonly the lungs and lymph system are concerned, however, sarcoidosis can affect all organs. Pulmonary symptoms varies from asymptomatic to exertional dyspnea and rarely pulmonary insufficiency or failure of other organ systems. The diagnosis is usually suspected primarily because of lung involvement and confirmed by a chest x-ray, a biopsy and the exclusion of other granulomatous inflammation. First-line drugs are corticosteroids. The prognosis is excellent with limited expansion ( “limited disease”), but in the more advanced stage ( “advanced disease”) is poor. Sarcoidosis on but usually occurs between the ages of 20 and 40 years, occasionally even in children and older adults. the prevalence worldwide among black Americans and ethnic northern Europeans, especially. Scandinavians, the highest. The clinical appearance varies greatly depending on ethnicity and ethnic background, and African-American and Puerto Rican have frequently extrathoracic manifestations. Sarcoidosis is more common in women. The incidence is increasing for unknown reasons in the winter and early spring. Löfgren syndrome The Löfgren syndrome manifests itself as a triad of acute arthritis, erythema nodosum and hilar lymphadenopathy. It often causes fever, malaise and uveitis and sometimes parotitis. It is more common in Scandinavian and Irish women. The Löfgren syndrome is often self-limiting. Patients respond normally to NSAIDs. The recurrence rate is low. Blau syndrome Blau syndrome when there is a sarcoidosis, which is inherited as an autosomal dominant and manifests itself in children. When Blue’s syndrome children from the age of 4 from arthritis, rash, and uveitis. The Blau syndrome is often self-limiting. The symptoms are alleviated usually by NSAIDs. Sarcoidosis etiology is to be due to an inflammatory response to an allergen from the environment in genetically predisposed. Proposed triggers are Propionibacterium acnes and mycobacteria (possibly the Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase [mKatG] protein) mold or mildew and certain, unidentified substances in workplaces with musty odors and pesticides before. Tobacco is inversely correlated with sarcoidosis. Evidence for genetic susceptibility folgendse includes: higher rate of disease concordance in monozygotic twins than dizygotic increased prevalence of sarcoidosis (about 3.6 to 9.6%) among relatives 1st or 2nd degree relatives of patients with sarcoidosis five-fold increase in the relative risk for sarcoidosis in siblings of patients sarcoidosis have identification of several possible HLA and non-HLA genes with sarcoidosis pathophysiology the unknown trigger causes a cell-mediated immune response by an accumulation of T cells and macrophages, the release of cytokines and chemokines and the organization the cells involved in the response is characterized to granulomas. Clustering of cases within families and communities can be a genetic predisposition, a common exposure or – which is less likely, however – a transfer from one person to suspect. The inflammatory process leads to the development nichtverkäsender granuloma, the pathological hallmark of sarcoidosis. Granulomas are accumulations of mononuclear cells and macrophages that are distinguished are surrounded in epithelioid cells and multinucleated giant cells and of lymphocytes, plasma cells, fibroblasts and collagen. Granulomas occur most often in the lungs and lymph nodes, but can affect any organ and cause significant impairment. Granulomas in the lungs are arranged along the lymphatic vessels in peribronchiolärer, subpleural and perilobular accumulation. Hypercalcemia can occur because vitamin D analogues have been produced by activated macrophages. Hypercalciuria may be present even in patients with normal serum calcium levels. Nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis may occur and sometimes lead to chronic kidney disease. Symptoms and signs The symptoms and discomfort depend on the extent of manifestation and the disease, are changing over time, and it show up spontaneous remission to chronic indolent disease. Consequently, frequent checkups for detection of new symptoms in different organs are needed. Most cases are probably asymptomatic and therefore go undetected. Pulmonary involvement occurs in> 90% of adult patients. The symptoms can consist of dyspnea, cough, tightness of chest and rattling noises. Fatigue, malaise, weakness, cachexia, weight loss and mild fever are also common. Sarcoidosis may manifest as fever of unknown origin. Systemic involvement leads to various symptoms (systemic involvement in sarcoidosis), which vary according to race, gender and age. Black show more frequently than whites participation of eyes, liver, bone marrow, peripheral lymph nodes and skin; Erythema nodosum is the exception. Women suffer more likely to have an erythema nodosum and a share of eye or nervous system. In men and older patients are more likely hypercalcemia occurs. Sarcoidosis (dacryocystitis) © Springer Science + Business Media var model = {thumbnailUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/424-sarcoidosis-dacrocystitis-slide-13-springer-high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw= 350 ‘, imageUrl’ /-/media/manual/professional/images/424-sarcoidosis-dacrocystitis-slide-13-springer-high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0 ‘, title:’ sarcoidosis (Dakryozystitis) ‘, description ‘ u003Ca id = “v37893280 ” class = “”anchor “” u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = “”para “” u003e u003cp u003eEine Dakryozystitis palpebral presents itself as an inflammation of the “” praise “”the tear ducts in the two upper eyelids in a patient with sarcoidosis u003c / p u003e u003c / div u003e. ‘credits’ © Springer Science + Business Media’

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