when appropriate doses are given) Since stable plasma levels are not reached before passage of 4-5 half-lives

involve drugs with long half-life (v. a. levorphanol and methadone) a risk for delayed toxicity with increasing plasma levels. Retarded opioids typically require several days

until uniform level reaches. In older opioids tend to have more side effects (often constipation and sedation or mental clouding). Falls are a particular risk in the elderly. Opioids may cause urinary retention with benign prostatic hyperplasia in male patients. Although tolerance to opioid-induced sedation

developed mental clouding and nausea usually within a few days


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