Arthritis patients with arthritis can benefit from activities and exercises that increase joint range of motion and strength, and strategies that protect the joints. For example, patients can be instructed to push a pot of boiling water instead of carrying him to avoid unnecessary pain and to help protect the joints too much as they can get out safely in the swimming Wanner and again an elevated toilet seat a to get bath bench, or both (for pain and the strain on the joints of the lower extremities to reduce) to wrap foam, cloth or tape around the handles of objects (eg. as knives, pots and pans) to cushion the handle tools to use with larger, ergonomically designed handles These lessons can take place in outpatient settings, in their own home within a home care or in private practice. Blindness Patients should be taught that they must rely on the other senses become more and should develop specific skills and can use aids for the blind, for. B. Braille, cane or a reader. The goal of therapy is to restore their internal security and promoting a maximum independence; Furthermore, patients need when dealing with and influence are supported on their surroundings. The therapy also depending on how the vision was lost (suddenly or slowly progressive) differs according to the degree of vision loss, the functional needs of the patient and other disabilities. For example, patients with peripheral neuropathy, as well as a reduced tactile discrimination capacity may have difficulty in the fingers to read Braille. Many blind people need psychological support, usually a cognitive behavioral therapy to better cope with their situation. In the context of walking exercise, therapy should include the learning process with a cane; the sticks that are used by blind people, are mostly white and also longer and thinner than normal walking sticks. People who use a wheelchair are taught is to use an arm to operate the wheelchair and the other to use the stick. Patients who use a guide dog instead of a stick, are taught in dealing with the dog and in his care. During the joint program with a sighted person to the blind man can hold the bent elbow of the accompanying person instead of using a walker. The sighted person should not lead to hand the Bilinden because most blind people perceive this action as humiliating and unpleasant. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with COPD may benefit from exercises to increase endurance and strategies to simplify activities and thus save energy. Activities and exercises that promote the use of upper and lower extremities are used to promote aerobic muscle activity, thus the overall oxygen demand drops and breathing becomes easier. The supervision of patients in the exercise of their activities helps that they are motivated and feel more confident. These lessons can take place in medical institutions or in the patient’s home. Head injury The term head injury is often synonymous with “traumatic brain injury” (TBI (traumatic brain injury TBI)) is used. The deficits are different and can from muscle weakness, spasticity, lack of coordination and ataxia exist; a reduction of cognitive functions is common, for example. As memory loss, loss of problem-solving skills as well as language or visual disturbances. Early involvement of rehabilitation specialists is essential for maximum functional recovery (traumatic brain injury: rehabilitation). Such participation includes the prevention of secondary complications such. As pressure ulcers, joint contractures, and pneumonia, further the teaching of the family. These rehabilitation specialists should raise the initial findings as early as possible. Before later rehabilitation is started, these patients should be re-examined; the findings raised here can help compared to baseline was to set treatment priorities. Patients with severe cognitive dysfunction require extensive cognitive therapy, which often starts immediately after the injury and will continue over months and years. Spinal cord injury The specific rehabilitation depends on the anomalies of the patient and depends on the location and extent of the injury (partial or complete) (spinal trauma and especially see Table: Effects of spinal trauma on the location). A complete transection causes flaccid paralysis, a partial transection causes spastic paralysis of innervated muscles of the affected segment. The functional capabilities of the patient depend on the level of injury (overview of spinal cord disorders: symptoms and complaints) and the training of complications from (. Eg joint contractures, pressure sores or pneumonia). The affected area must be immobilized by surgery or conservative as quickly as possible and throughout the acute phase. During the acute phase measures to prevent contractures, pressure sores and pneumonia should be part of daily routine, also all measures necessary for the prevention of further complications such as Orthostasereaktion of atelectasis, deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. The recovery of a balanced circuit situation can be achieved by storing the patient on a tilt table and then slowly increases the tilt angle up to the upright position. Compression stockings, an elastic bandage or an abdominal binder can help prevent Orthostasereaktion.

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