(Raynaud’s syndrome)

Raynaud’s syndrome is a vasospasm in parts of the hand in response to cold, emotional stress, causing a reversible color changes discomfort and (pallor, cyanosis, erythema or a combination) in one or more fingers. Sometimes other extremities (z. B. nose, tongue) are affected. The disease may be primary (idiopathic) or secondary to occur. The diagnosis is made clinically, the study aims to distinguish primary from a secondary disease. The treatment of uncomplicated cases includes the avoidance of cold, biofeedback methods and, if required Nicotinabstinenz vasodilating calcium antagonists (eg., Nifedipine) or prazosin.

The prevalence is a total of 3-5%; Women are affected more often than men and younger people more than older people. Raynaud’s syndrome is probably formed due to increased ?2-adrenergic response that triggers the Vasopsasmus; the mechanism is not clear.

Raynaud’s syndrome is a vasospasm in parts of the hand in response to cold, emotional stress, causing a reversible color changes discomfort and (pallor, cyanosis, erythema or a combination) in one or more fingers. Sometimes other extremities (z. B. nose, tongue) are affected. The disease may be primary (idiopathic) or secondary to occur. The diagnosis is made clinically, the study aims to distinguish primary from a secondary disease. The treatment of uncomplicated cases includes the avoidance of cold, biofeedback methods and, if required Nicotinabstinenz vasodilating calcium antagonists (eg., Nifedipine) or prazosin. The prevalence is a total of 3-5%; Women are affected more often than men and younger people more than older people. Raynaud’s syndrome is probably formed due to increased ?2-adrenergic response that triggers the Vasopsasmus; the mechanism is not clear. The primary Raynaud’s syndrome is much more common (> 80% of cases) as the secondary; it occurs without symptoms or signs of other diseases. The remaining 20% ??of patients with symptoms of Raynaud’s syndrome, a causal underlying disease (eg. As systemic sclerosis) is diagnosed at first presentation or below. The secondary Raynaud’s syndrome is associated with various diseases and conditions, mainly connective tissue diseases (see Fig. Causes of secondary Raynaud’s disease). Causes of secondary Raynaud’s syndrome cause examples connective tissue diseases mixed connective tissue disease or undifferentiated connective tissue diseases polymyositis / dermatomyositis RA Sjögren’s syndrome SLE Systemic sclerosis Endocrine disorders hypothyroidism hematologic disease Cold agglutinin Polycythemia Vera tumors Carcinoid syndrome paraneoplastic neurological diseases carpal tunnel injuries frostbite vibration Vascular thoracic outlet syndrome Drug therapy ?-blockers cocaine ergot preparations nicotine agonists nicotine contributes often help, but is often overlooked. Raynaud’s syndrome can accompany migraine headaches, different anginal states and pulmonary arterial hypertension, suggesting that these diseases share a common vasospastic mechanism. Symptoms and discomfort feeling cold, burning pain, paresthesia or temporary color changes in one or more fingers are triggered when cold exposure, emotional stress and vibration. The symptoms are reversible upon removal of the trigger. The warming of the hands accelerates the restoration of normal skin color and sensation. The color changes are clearly limited to the finger. You can triphasic (pallor followed by cyanosis and after warming up the erythema follows due to reactive hyperemia), biphasic (cyanosis, erythema) or uniphasisch (only pallor or cyanosis only) be. The changes are often symmetrical. Raynaud’s syndrome is not proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint; It most commonly affects the three middle fingers and the thumb rare. The vasospasm may last from minutes to hours, but is rarely strong enough to cause a loss of tissue in primary Raynaud’s syndrome. Raynaud’s syndrome with cyanosis © Springer Science + Business Media var model = {thumbnailUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/44_raynaud_slide_18_springer_high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw=350’ imageUrl: ‘/ – / media / ? manual / professional / images / 44_raynaud_slide_18_springer_high_de.jpg lang = en & thn = 0 ‘, title:’ Raynaud’s syndrome with cyanosis ‘description:’ u003Ca id = “v37893792 ” class = “”anchor “” u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = “”para “” u003e u003cp u003eMehrere fingertips are cyanotic u003c / p u003e u003c / div u003e ‘credits’. © Springer Science + Business Media’

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