Rat-bite fever is either Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. caused. Symptoms of streptobazillären form include fever, rash and joint pain. The spirilläre form causes relapsing fever, rash and regional lymphadenitis. The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed by culture and sometimes rising antibody titer. For treatment to macrolides or doxycycline are.

Excitation of rat bite fever is transmitted at up to 10% of rat bites on humans. However Clinical history on rat bites can be absent. Rat-bite fever is most commonly caused by rat bites, but can also by the bite from any other rodent or predator that hunts rodents, caused. Both the streptobazilläre and the spirilläre form occur mainly at urban dwellers who live in crowded conditions, and biomedical laboratory personnel. In the US and Europe, rat-bite fever is usually transmitted by S. moniliformis, in Asia generally by S. minus.

Rat-bite fever is either Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. caused. Symptoms of streptobazillären form include fever, rash and joint pain. The spirilläre form causes relapsing fever, rash and regional lymphadenitis. The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed by culture and sometimes rising antibody titer. For treatment to macrolides or doxycycline are. Excitation of rat bite fever is transmitted at up to 10% of rat bites on humans. However Clinical history on rat bites can be absent. Rat-bite fever is most commonly caused by rat bites, but can also by the bite from any other rodent or predator that hunts rodents, caused. Both the streptobazilläre and the spirilläre form occur mainly at urban dwellers who live in crowded conditions, and biomedical laboratory personnel. In the US and Europe, rat-bite fever is usually transmitted by S. moniliformis, in Asia generally by S. minus. Streptobazilläres rat-bite fever This shape is caused by the gram-negative rods pleomorphic bacterium S. moniliformis, an excitation, which occurs in the oropharynx of healthy rats. Epidemics have been associated with the ingestion of unpasteurized, with S. moniliformis contaminated milk (Haverhill fever), the infection is, however, usually caused by the bite of a wild rat or mouse. Other rodents and weasels were also brought into connection. The primary wound usually heals promptly, but after an incubation period of 1-22 (usually <10 days) quickly a virus-like syndrome develops and gets chills, fever, vomiting and back and joint pain out. Most patients develop a morbilliform, petechial or vesicular rash on the hands and feet about 3 days later. Many patients have polyarthralgia or arthritis may develop within a week, which can usually asymmetrical affects the large joints and last for several days or months without treatment. The fever may return by acting irregularly over a period of weeks to months. Bacterial endocarditis and abscesses in the brain and other tissues are rare but serious. Some patients have an infected pericardial effusion and infected amniotic fluid. Haverhill fever (erythema arthriticum epidemicum) is similar percutaneously acquired rat-bite fever, but with more prominentee pharyngitis and vomiting. The diagnosis is made by the cultural detection of pathogens from the blood or synovial fluid. Measurable agglutinins develop during the 2nd or 3rd week and are diagnostically valuable in titer increase. PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests may be helpful. The white blood cell counts are between 6000 and 30 000 / ul. Serological tests for syphilis can be false-positive. The streptobazilläre form can usually be clinically differentiated from the spirillären form. The therapy consists of amoxicillin 1 g p.o. every 8 h, procaine penicillin G 600,000 units i.m. every 12 h or penicillin V 500 mg p.o. 4 times daily for 7-10 days. Erythromycin 500 mg p.o. can be used in patients allergic to penicillin 4 times daily for 7-10 days. Doxycycline 100 mg every 12 hours for 14 days is an alternative. Spirilläres rat-bite fever (Sodoku) A minus S. infection with Spirillum minus is a rat, occasionally obtained a mouse bite. The ingestion of the organism does not cause the disease. The wound usually heals promptly, but it comes after 4-28 (usually> 10) days at this point to inflammation, accompanied by a relapsing fever and regional lymphadenitis. sometimes, a roseolär-urticarial rash develops but is less visible than the streptobazilläre rash. Often systemic symptoms accompany the fever, but arthritis is rare. In untreated patients there is usually every 4-8 weeks recurring 2- to 4-day fever cycles, but rarely febrile episodes recur> 1 year. The diagnosis is made by the clinical view or the cultural detection of Spirillum from blood smears or tissue from lesions or lymph nodes or by Giemsa staining or darkfield microscopy of blood inoculated mice. The white blood cell count is between 5000 and 30 000 / ul. The results of the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) tests are false-positive in half of the patients. The disease can easily be confused with malaria or Borrelia recurrentis infections, both may each also cause relapsing fever. The treatment is the same as in the streptobazillären form.

Health Life Media Team

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