Ionizing radiation damages tissue in different ways, depending on the radiation dose, the duration of exposure, the type of radiation and the part of the body concerned. Symptoms can be local (eg. As burns) or systemically (eg. As acute radiation syndrome). The diagnosis is made by information on the history of exposure and the symptoms, but sometimes also by radiation detectors that are used to locate and identify Radionuklidbelasatung. Treatment focuses on associated therewith traumatic injuries, decontamination, supportive measures and minimizing the exposure of health care workers. Patients with severe acute radiation sickness require reverse isolation and support of the bone marrow. Patients who are internally contaminated with certain radionuclides, get-uptake inhibitors or chelating agents. The prognosis is first determined by the elapsed time between exposure and the onset of symptoms, the severity of these symptoms and the lymphocytes during the first 24-72 hours.

Ionizing radiation emitted from radioactive elements and devices such as X-ray and radiation therapy apparatus.

Ionizing radiation damages tissue in different ways, depending on the radiation dose, the duration of exposure, the type of radiation and the part of the body concerned. Symptoms can be local (eg. As burns) or systemically (eg. As acute radiation syndrome). The diagnosis is made by information on the history of exposure and the symptoms, but sometimes also by radiation detectors that are used to locate and identify Radionuklidbelasatung. Treatment focuses on associated therewith traumatic injuries, decontamination, supportive measures and minimizing the exposure of health care workers. Patients with severe acute radiation sickness require reverse isolation and support of the bone marrow. Patients who are internally contaminated with certain radionuclides, get-uptake inhibitors or chelating agents. The prognosis is first determined by the elapsed time between exposure and the onset of symptoms, the severity of these symptoms and the lymphocytes during the first 24-72 hours. Ionizing radiation emitted from radioactive elements and devices such as X-ray and radiation therapy apparatus. Types of radiation radiation includes high-energy electromagnetic waves (X-rays, gamma rays) particles (alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons) alpha particles are energetic helium nuclei, emitted from various radioactive atoms (eg. B. plutonium, radium, uranium), the only up to a small depth can penetrate the skin (<0.1 mm). Beta particles are high-energy electrons which are emitted by nuclei of unstable atoms (eg., Cesium-137, iodine-131). These particles can penetrate deeper into the skin (1-2 cm) and cause both epithelial and sub-epithelial damage. Neutrons are electrically neutral particles from the core of a few radionuclides (such as Californium-252.) Are ejected and (for example in nuclear reactors.) Were produced in the nuclear division reactions; the depth of their tissue penetration varies from a few millimeters to a few dozen centimeters, depending on their energy. They collide with the nuclei of stable atoms, resulting in the emission of high-energy protons, alpha and beta particles and gamma radiation. Gamma-radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation (i. E. Photons) of very short wavelengths which can penetrate deep into the tissue (several centimeters). While some photons deliver their entire energy into the body, other photons of the same energy can deliver only a fraction of their energy, while others can pass through the body without an interaction completely. Because of these characteristic features of alpha and beta particles cause most damage when radioactive elements that emit within the body (internal contamination) or, in the case of a beta emission, are directly thereon; only the tissue in the immediate vicinity of the radionuclide is affected. Gamma and X-rays can cause damage at great distances from their sources and are usually responsible for acute radiation syndrome (ARS, radiation exposure and contamination: Acute radiation syndrome (ARS)). Radiation Measurement Customary units include the X-ray, the wheel and the Rem. The X-ray (R) is the unit for the measurement of exposure to X-rays or Grammastrahlen in the air. The radiation absorbed dose (rad), the absorbed amount of this radiation energy per unit of mass. Because biological damage per wheel varies with the type of radiation (it is higher in neutrons than for X or gamma radiation), the dose is corrected in wheel by a quality factor; the resulting equivalent dose is the X-ray Equivalent Man (rem). Outside the United States and in the scientific literature SI (international system) units are used in which the wheel by the Gray (Gy) and the Rem is replaced by the sievert (Sv); 1 Gy = 100 rad and 1 Sv = 100 Rem. And Rem wheel (and thus Gy and Sv) are substantially equivalent (i. E., The quality criteria are equal to 1) in the description of X-rays, gamma or beta radiation. The amount (quantity) of radioactivity is expressed in terms of the number of nuclear decays (transformations) per second. The Becquerel (Bq) is the SI unit of radioactivity; a Bq is 1 disintegration per second (DPS). In the US system, a Curie is 37 billion Bq. In types of exposure of radiation exposure, there are two types of exposure: contamination irradiation of radioactive contamination refers to the unintentional contact with radioactive material and its retention, usually as a dust or liquid. Contamination can happen in two ways: Externally Internally exterior contamination is on the skin or clothing, which can drop the radioactive material or be rubbed off and then contaminate other people and objects. Internal contamination is radioactive material within the body which can accidentally penetrate through ingestion, inhalation or through cracks in the skin. Once it is in the body, radioactive material can be transported to various locations (eg. As in the bone marrow), where it releases further radiation until it is removed or decomposed. Internal contamination is more difficult to eliminate. Although an internal contamination is possible in principle with any radionuclide, a relatively small number of radionuclides came into recent past cases where contamination constitute a significant risk to the patients, such as phosphorus-32, cobalt-60, strontium-90, cesium -137, iodine-131, radium-226, uranium-235, uranium-238, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, polonium-210 and americium-241st Irradiation is the exposure to radiation but not to radioactive material (i. E. There is no contamination is present). Radiation exposure (for. Example, radioactive materials, X-ray machine) come in contact with the person without the source of radiation. When the source of radiation is removed or turned off, the exposure ends. The irradiation may involve the whole body, wa, if the dose is high enough, systemic symptoms, and the so-called radiation sickness. (Radiation exposure and contamination: Acute radiation syndrome (ARS)) can trigger, or a small part of the body (eg by. radiotherapy), which may cause local symptoms. Affected individuals give to irradiation from no radiation, d. H. they are not radioactive. Sources of exposure sources can occur naturally or artificially (s. Average annual radiation exposure in the US). Humans are continuously exposed to a low concentration of natural radiation (the so-called background radiation). Background radiation comes from the cosmic rays and radioactive elements in the air, water and soil. Cosmic radiation is focused at the poles by the magnetic field and is mitigated by the atmosphere. Thus, the radiation exposure for people in the high latitudes or at high altitudes or during a flight greatest. Terrestrial sources of external exposure will be sought primarily because of the presence of radioactive elements with half-lives comparable to the age of the Earth (~ 4.5 billion years). In particular, uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) and several dozen their radioactive seed, and a radioactive isotope of potassium (40K) are available in many rocks and minerals. Small amounts of these radionuclides are in food, water and air and contribute to the internal stress, since these radionuclides are invariably introduced into the body. The majority of the dose of built-in inside radionuclides comes from radioisotopes of carbon (14C), and potassium (40K), and because this and other elements (stable and radioactive forms) are continuously replenished in the body by ingestion and inhalation, there are about 7000 atoms that undergo radioactive decay every second. Internal load by inhalation of radioactive isotopes of the noble gas radon (222Rn and 220Rn), which also consists of uranium (238U) - decay series are formed makes the largest part (73%) of the average found in the US population per head of course radiation dose. accounted for 11% cosmic rays, radioactive elements in the body 9% and to the external terrestrial radiation 7%. In the US, people receive an average effective dose of about 3 millisieverts (mSv) per year from natural sources (range ~ 0.5 to 20 mSv / year). But in some parts of the world, people get> 50 mSv / year. The doses from natural background radiation are much too low to cause radiation damage, they can lead to a slight increase in cancer risk, although some experts believe that there is no increasing risk. In the US, people on average get about 3 mSv per year from artificial sources, of which the vast majority of medical imaging comes. With a per capita basis, the radiation exposure from medical imaging with CT and nuclear cardiology is greatest. However, the medical diagnostic method rarely emit doses sufficient to cause injury, although there is a small theoretical increase in cancer risk. Exceptions, certain extended fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures (e.g. B. Endovascular reconstruction vascular embolization, cardiac and tumor- radiofrequency ablation.); these methods have in the past caused injury to the skin and underlying tissue. Radiation can also cause damage to some healthy tissues near the target tissue. Chronic radiodermatitis © Springer Science + Business Media var model = {thumbnailUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/419-chronic-radiodermatitis-slide-8-springer-high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw=350’ , imageUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/419-chronic-radiodermatitis-slide-8-springer-high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0’, title: ‘Chronic radiodermatitis’ description:’ u003Ca id = “v37898469 ” class = “”anchor “” u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = “”para “” u003e u003cp u003eChronische radiodermatitis at the site of mastectomy due to postoperative radiotherapy. Note the associated “”radiation hyperkeratotic plaques “”

Health Life Media Team

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