Diving is a relatively safe recreational activity for healthy people who are trained and taught. Courses on diving safety offered by national diving organizations and are widely available. Safety precautions, the risk of the occurrence of barotrauma can be reduced by active pressure compensation of different air spaces, incl. The in the face mask ((by blowing air from the nose in the mask), and in the middle ear by yawning, swallowing or performing a Valsalva maneuver). Diver should avoid to hold his breath, and should breathe normally when emerging from the bottom; this should be no faster than 0.15-0.30 m / s, a rate which permits gradual exhaling of N2 and emptying of air-filled spaces (z. B. lung, sine wave). Divers should insert Dekompressionsstos as in the published guidelines established (eg. As the decompression table in Diagnosis and Treatment of Decompression Sickness and Arterial Gas Embolism, a chapter of the US Navy Diving Manual). The current recommendations also contain a 3- to 5-minute safety stop at 4.6 m for further compensation. Divers should not fly 15 to 18 hours after the last dive. Divers should be aware of dangerous diving conditions clear and avoid them. Poor visibility currents require excessive effort Cold temperatures dive alone leisure or sedative drugs and alcohol Cold temperatures are a special hazard because hypothermia develops fast and the judgment and skill is impaired or can cause fatal cardiac arrhythmia in susceptible people. It is not recommended to dive alone. Stimulants such as alcohol and sedative drugs regardless of the amount can have an erratic and unforeseeable effects in depth and should be strictly avoided. Otherwise prescription drugs interfere rare in recreational diving; However, if the treated disease is a contraindication for diving itself, diving should not be continued. Contraindications for diving because the dive may be associated with great efforts, divers should have no significant cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases and have above-average aerobic capacity. Diseases that limit awareness, alertness or judgment, the diving is generally prohibited. In case of doubt whether diving in a certain disease is contraindicated, a recognized specialist should be consulted. Specific contraindications for diving, see Table: Special medical contraindications for diving. Special medical contraindications for diving contraindication Specific examples or adverse effects lung disease Acute Asthma Bronchiectasis Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Cystic Fibrosis history of spontaneous pneumothorax interstitial lung disease pulmonary cysts Marfan syndrome Cardiovascular diseases: heart failure history of significant ventricular arrhythmias, hemodynamically significant intracardiac shunt Significant coronary artery disease Psychological disorders panic or phobia Structural failure Untreated hernia Neurological diseases seizure disorders syncope metabolic disorders Extreme obesity type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin (a relative contraindication) in ear, nose and throat diseases Allergic rhinitis perforated eardrum infection obe ren respiratory pregnancy Possible risk of birth defects and fetal injury from decompression sickness Habituales air swallowing Gastrointestinal hyperinflation during the ascent by swallowing of compressed air in the depth Poor exercise tolerance Insufficient physiological response to an adverse diving conditions Heavy gastroesophageal reflux exacerbated by the loss of the effect of gravity on the abdomen during a flooding Children <10 years Incomplete understanding of physics and physiology of diving. For more information Divers Alert Network: 24-hour emergency hotline, 919-684-9111 SEA 00C: Office of the Director of Ocean Engineering Supervisor of Salvage and Diving

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