Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) repeated called and intrusive memories of an overwhelming traumatic event. The memories last for> 1 month and begin within 6 months after the event. The pathophysiology of the disorder is not fully understood. Symptoms also include the avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, nightmares and flashbacks. The diagnosis is made on the basis of medical history. The treatment consists of exposure and pharmacotherapy.

When terrible things happen, they can persistently affect many people; in some, the effects of such duration and gravity as to impair the functionality of strong and have clinical significance. In general, activate events that can cause PTSD, feelings of fear, helplessness or horror. Such experiences can be experienced directly (for example, serious injury or at risk of dying.) Or indirectly (eg to witness how other people are seriously injured are in critical condition or die;. Learning from events that befell close family members or friends). Combat, sexual assault, and natural or man-made disasters are common causes of PTSD.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) repeated called and intrusive memories of an overwhelming traumatic event. The memories last for> 1 month and begin within 6 months after the event. The pathophysiology of the disorder is not fully understood. Symptoms also include the avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, nightmares and flashbacks. The diagnosis is made on the basis of medical history. The treatment consists of exposure and pharmacotherapy. When terrible things happen, they can persistently affect many people; in some, the effects of such duration and gravity as to impair the functionality of strong and have clinical significance. In general, activate events that can cause PTSD, feelings of fear, helplessness or horror. Such experiences can be experienced directly (for example, serious injury or at risk of dying.) Or indirectly (eg to witness how other people are seriously injured are in critical condition or die;. Learning from events that befell close family members or friends). Combat, sexual assault, and natural or man-made disasters are common causes of PTSD. The lifetime prevalence of nearly 9% at a 1-year prevalence of about 4%. Symptoms and signs In most cases, patients have frequent unwanted memories in which the triggering event is happening again and again. Nightmares about the Ereinigs are common. Much less common are temporary wake dissociative states in which the events are seen again as a real (flashbacks), which causes the patient in some cases, to behave as in the original situation (eg. As loud noises like fireworks can have a Flashback trigger in which the victims believe they are at war again, which in turn means that patients seek shelter or take for protection on the ground.) prevent the patient stimuli associated with the trauma, and feel often emotionally blunted and uninterested in everyday activities. Sometimes the symptoms are a continuation of acute stress disorder (Acute Stress Disorder (ASD)), or they may occur separately, beginning up to 6 months after the trauma. Sometimes the symptoms with full expression translated delayed, and they can occur months to years after the traumatic event. Depression, other anxiety disorders and substance abuse are common in patients with chronic PTSD. In addition to the trauma-specific anxiety, patients may suffer or for their own conduct at the event including feelings of guilt that they have survived and others did not. Diagnosis Clinical criteria The diagnosis is made clinically based on the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). To meet the criteria for diagnosis, the patient must have been directly or indirectly exposed to a traumatic event, and have the symptoms of each of the following categories for a period ? 1 month. Intrusive symptoms (? 1 of the following): He has recurring, involuntary, intrusive and disturbing memories He has recurring disturbing dreams (eg nightmares.) Of the event he is or feels as if the event happen again, flashbacks up the complete loss of awareness, he felt intense mental or physical stress while being reminded of the event (for example, on the anniversary or similar noise as they could be heard during the event.) avoidance symptoms (? 1 of the following): He avoids thoughts feelings or memories associated with the event He avoids activities, places, conversations or people that memories of the event trigger negative effects on cognition and mood (? 2 of the following): memory loss of essential lish parts of the event (dissociative amnesia) Persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs or expectations about themselves, others or the world Sustained distorted thoughts about the cause or consequences of trauma, which leads to giving up selbs or blame others. Persistent negative emotional state (eg. As anxiety, horror, anger, guilt, shame) Markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities A feeling of detachment or estrangement from others Persistent inability to experience positive emotions as (eg. Happiness, contentment , loving feelings) Changes in arousal and reactivity (? 2 of the following): sleep disorders irritability or outbursts of anger reckless or self-destructive behavior problems with concentration Increased startle response hypervigilance In addition, the manifestations must cause significant distress or substantially interfere with social or occupational functioning and not the physiological effect be attributed to a substance or other medical condition. Therapy exposure treatment or other psychotherapy, incl. Supportive psychotherapy SSRI or other pharmacotherapy Without treatment, the symptoms can often after which disorder subsides not entirely, but some people remain severely impaired. In the main form of psychotherapy used, exposure therapy (specific phobic disorders: Exposure treatment), sufferers are faced with situations that they usually avoid because they might trigger memories of the trauma. The repeated reliving of the traumatic experience in the imagination usually resolves after an initial slight increase in discomfort the tension. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a form of exposure therapy. In this therapy, patients are asked to follow the moving fingers of the therapist as they imagine to be exposed to the trauma. It can also help to stop certain ritualistic behaviors to feel after a sexual assault again clean as excessive washing,. Drug therapy, especially with SSRI (Drug treatment of depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)), is effective. Prazosin appears to be helpful in reducing nightmares. Mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics are sometimes prescribed, their use is not supported enough. For fear is often intensive, supportive psychotherapy a crucial role to play. Therapists must be open, empathetic and sympathetic, by recognizing the psychic pain of their patients and the reality of traumatic experiences and acknowledge. In addition, the therapist must encourage their patients to have been raised in a desensitizing exposure their memories and learn anxiety management strategies. In so-called. Survivor guilt psychotherapy can be helpful, which aims to help patients to modify their self-critical and punitive settings.

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