Porencephaly is a cavity, which may be pre- or post-natal development of the cerebral hemisphere.

Cavities communicate frequently with one ventricle, but they can also trapped (d. E. Non-communicating), his fluid-filled cysts. Increased intracranial pressure and progressive hydrocephalus (hydrocephalus) may occur with Porencephaly, especially with the non-communicating form, but are rare.

Porencephaly is a cavity, which may be pre- or post-natal development of the cerebral hemisphere. Cavities communicate frequently with one ventricle, but they can also trapped (d. E. Non-communicating), his fluid-filled cysts. Increased intracranial pressure and progressive hydrocephalus (hydrocephalus) may occur with Porencephaly, especially with the non-communicating form, but are rare. Among the causes of Porencephaly Genetic abnormalities Inflammatory disorders that disrupt the regional cerebral blood flow include (z. B. intraventricular hemorrhage with parenchymal extension) The neurological examination is abnormal, as a rule, with manifestations including either low or increased muscle tone, developmental delays, hemiparesis or impairment of visual attention. However, some children develop only minor neurological symptoms and have normal intelligence. The diagnosis is made by CT, MRI or ultrasound. The prognosis is variable. The treatment is symptomatic. Hydranencephaly The Hydranencephaly is an extreme form of Porencephaly in which the cerebral hemispheres almost completely absent. Usually, cerebellum, and brainstem are formed normally and the basal ganglia intact. Meninges, bones and skin of the skull are normal. Often the Hydranencephaly is prenatally diagnosed by ultrasound. Neurological examination is pathological in general, and the infant is not developing normally. The children often have seizures and mental retardation. Externally, the head seems normal, but appears in the transillumination light completely. CT or ultrasonography confirm the diagnosis. Treatment is supportive; in heavy growth of the head of the plant of a shunt is required. The Schizencephaly Schizencephaly, which is considered by some experts as a kind Porencephaly, includes the presence of a pathological form of slots and columns in the cerebral hemispheres. These columns extend from the cortical surface in the ventricle and unlike other Porenzephalien they are lined with heterotopic gray matter. This gray substance has some of the structural features of the Polymicrogyria (malformations of the brain hemispheres: Polymicrogyria), d. H. there are miniature wrinkles and abnormal lamination, similar to abnormally shaped gyri. If the walls of the column are closely opposed, so that the MRI shows no clear passage of CSF from the ventricle into the subarachnoid space, the defect Schizencephaly is called closed-lip; when a Liquor channel can be seen, the defect Schizencephaly called open lip. Schizencephaly with open lip can lead to hydrocephalus. Unlike other Porenzephalien, many of which are attributed to a brain injury, the Schizencephaly a defect in neuronal migration, and is therefore often a genetically determined malformation. Affected children often have developmental delay and can have depending on the location of the defect, focal neurologic findings such Hemiparase weakness or spasticity. Attacks are common to both types of Schizencephaly. Treatment is supportive.

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