Physical growth comprises reaching the full height and the corresponding body weight and the increase in size of all organs of the body (excluding the lymphoid tissue which decreases in size). Showing growth from birth to adolescence two defined growth phases:

(See also failure to thrive and health monitoring of the healthy child.) Physical growth comprises reaching full height and the corresponding body weight and the increase in size of all the body organs (except of lymphoid tissue, which decreases in size). Showing growth from birth to adolescence two defined growth phases: Phase 1 (from birth until the age of 1-2 years): This phase is characterized by a decreasing growth rate during high but. Phase 2 (from the age of puberty up to): In this phase there is a constant size annual growth. The term “puberty” means the process of physical maturation from child to adult. Adolescence defines an age group, the age of puberty occurs within adolescence (s. Physical growth and sexual maturity of adolescents). As part of puberty there is a second growth spurt, which is pronounced differently in boys and girls. From birth until the age of 2 years, it is recommended that all growth parameters are mapped with the standard growth charts of the WHO. After two years of growth parameters are mapped with growth graphs from the CDC (1). Note 1. Grummer-Strawn LM, Reinold C, cancer NF, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Use of World Health Organization and CDC growth charts for children aged 0-59 months in the United States. MMWR RECOMM Rep RR information and additional information. MMWR RECOMM Rep 59 (36): 1184, 2010. The body length body length is measured in children who can not yet stand, body height, as soon as the child can stand. In general, the length increases at a ripe-born infants to the 5th month by about 30% and> 50% by 12 months of age to; Infants grow 25 cm in the first year; a doubling of the birth length, it comes with 5 years. Most boys reach the age of two years, half the adult size, most girls already at 19 months. To assess the growth is the growth rate compared to the size measurement at different times of the sensitive parameters. Normally healthy term infants and children grow between birth and 6 months of age approximately 2.5 cm in the month, 1.3 cm a month between the 7th and 12th month and about 7.6 cm per year between the 12th month and 10 years of age. Before the age of 12 months, the growth speed varies, and is in part dependent on perinatal factors (z. B. prematurity). From the 12th month of life the size is mainly determined only genetically; the growth rate remains constant until puberty. The size of a child remains the same in relation to their peers in most cases. Some SGA infants own to stay their whole lives less than the children with the same gestational age whose weight was normal at birth. The difference in the growth rate is only low in boys and girls in the infant period and childhood. The limbs grow faster than the trunk, resulting in a gradual change of proportions. The ratio of peak to pubic bone to pubic bone heel is at birth was 1.7 and then decreases to 1.5 with 12 months to 1.2 with 5 years and 1.0 to 7 years from. Clinical Calculator: CDC body size for age for boys (2-20 years) Clinical Calculator: CDC body size for age for girls (2-20 years) Clinical Calculator: WHO Körperlängenperzentile by age for infants (<24 months) weight Body weight follows a similar pattern. Normal and born to the appointment newborns lose in the days after the birth of 5-8% is reached again within about 2 weeks of their birth weight. After that, they take up to 3 months of age approximately 14-28 grams a day, then between the 3rd and 12th month total of 4000 g, resulting in a doubling of birth weight by 5 and tripled with 12 months and almost a quadrupling leads with 2 years. Between the second year of life and puberty, the increase at 2 kg per year is. As part of the recent epidemic of increase in obesity in children (see table changes in the Prävelanz vpn obesity according to NHANES) occurred, even in very young children to much larger weight gains. Usually boys are bigger and heavier than girls after completion of growth because they have a longer pre-pubertal growth period, a faster maximum speed of growth during the pubertal growth spurt and a longer lasting growth during adolescence. Changes in the prevalence of obesity by age group NHANES 1976-1980 2003-2004 2007-2008 2009-2012 2-5 years 5% 13.9% 10.4% 12.1% 6.5% 18.8% 6-11 19 6% 18.0% 12-19 Yes hre 5% 17.4% 18.1% 18.4% 20-74 years 15% 32.9% 33.8% 35.7% NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Clinical Calculator: CDC clinical weight for age for boys (2-20 years) Calculator: CDC weight for age for girls (2-20 years) Clinical Calculator: CDC weight for Körpergrößeperzentile for boys (77 to 121 cm tall) clinical calculator: CDC weight for Körpergrößeperzentile for girls (77 to 121 cm tall) Clinical calculator: WHO percentile for weight by age for infants (<24 months) Clinical calculator: WHO percentile for weight for body length for infants (<24 months) The head circumference head circumference reflects the brain size and is routinely measured up to 36 months. At birth, the brain has about 25% of adult height, head circumference is 35 cm. In the first year of the head circumference increases an average of 1 cm per month, with growth is fastest in the first 8 months of life. By 12 months, the brain has reached half of its postnatal growth and 75% of adult size. Over the next two years of head circumference by 3.5 cm increases. At the age of 3 years, the brain has 80% and 7 years, 90% of the adult size. Clinical Calculator: WHO Kopfumfangsperzentile by age for infants (<24 months) body composition Body composition (the ratio of body fat and body water) changes and affects the distribution of the drug volume. The percentage of body fat increases rapidly from 13% at birth to 20-25% under the age of 12 months, resulting in the rounded appearance at this age. As a result, the body fat percentage decreases slowly again and drops to 13% in preadolescence. Until the beginning of puberty, it comes back to a slow rise before the share then especially in boys, again drops. After puberty, the body fat percentage among girls is the same as he easily falls in boys. The proportion of the water body is in relation to body weight at birth at 70%, then falls to 12 months of age to 61% from (similar to the proportion in adults). This change is based predominantly on the decrease in extracellular fluid (ECF) from 45 to 28% of body weight. The intracellular fluid (ICF) remains relatively constant. After 12 months there is a slow and variable decrease of the ECF by 20% and an increase in the ICF to the portion which is measured in adults: about 40%. The relatively larger percentage of body water, the higher turnover rate and the comparatively larger insensible perspiration (because of the relatively larger body surface area) have the effect that infants are more susceptible to dehydration than older children and adults. Tooth eruption The timing of tooth eruption is variable (see table: Times of tooth eruption), primarily due to genetic factors. As a rule, should normal infants aged 12 months 6 teeth, at 18 months, at the age of 2 years have 12 teeth 16 teeth and all 20 teeth at the age of 2½ years. Permanent teeth replace the milk teeth between 5 and 13 years. The breakthrough of milk teeth is the same for boys and girls; the permanent teeth come with the girls on the other hand usually sooner. The eruption may be delayed due to family preconditions or rickets, hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism, or Down syndrome. Supernumerary and missing teeth are probably normal variants. The determination of the teeth The numbering shown is the most widely used in the United States. Periods of tooth eruption teeth no. Age at eruption * Milk teeth (20 in total) lower central incisors 2 5-9 months upper central incisors 2 8-12 months upper lateral incisors 2 10 -12 Mona te lower lateral incisors 2 12-15 months 1 molar † 4 months canines 10-16 4 16 -20 months 2 molar † 4 20-30 months permanent teeth (32 total) 1. molar † 4 5-7 years incisors 8 6-8 years premolar 8 9-12 years canines 4 10-13 years 2. molars † 4 † 11-13 years 3rd molars 4 17-25 years * Varies greatly. The † molars toward the back of the mouth numbered from the front side (the determination of the teeth). More information Growth charts from the CDC. Growth charts from the WHO.

Health Life Media Team

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