Personality disorders are i. Gen. induce ubiquitous, persistent pattern of perception, reaction, and relationship, the significant distress or malfunction. Personality disorders are significantly different in their manifestations, but all is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Many will with age gradually less serious, but certain features may last up to a certain extent when the acute symptoms that led to the diagnosis of a disease, have subsided. The diagnosis is made clinically. Treatment consists of psychosocial therapies and in some cases, medication.

Personality disorders are i. Gen. induce ubiquitous, persistent pattern of perception, reaction, and relationship, the significant distress or malfunction. Personality disorders are significantly different in their manifestations, but all is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Many will with age gradually less serious, but certain features may last up to a certain extent when the acute symptoms that led to the diagnosis of a disease, have subsided. The diagnosis is made clinically. Treatment consists of psychosocial therapies and in some cases, medication.

(Dissociative identity disorder.) Personality disorders are i. Gen. induce ubiquitous, persistent pattern of perception, reaction, and relationship, the significant distress or malfunction. Personality disorders are significantly different in their manifestations, but all is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Many will with age gradually less serious, but certain features may last up to a certain extent when the acute symptoms that led to the diagnosis of a disease, have subsided. The diagnosis is made clinically. Treatment consists of psychosocial therapies and in some cases, medication. Personality traits are relatively stable over time thought, perception, reaction and relationship patterns. To personality disorders is when these characteristics are so pronounced, rigid and conformist to affect the professional and interpersonal functioning. These social mismatches can cause significant stress in people with personality disorders and those who surround them produce. For people with personality disorders (as opposed to many others, the psychological counseling search) the level of suffering through the consequences of their socially maladaptive behaviors usually the reason to seek treatment, and not the discomfort with their own thoughts and feelings. Therefore, doctors must help to identify patients at first that their personality characteristics are the root of the problem. Personality disorders are usually during late adolescence or early adulthood first evident, and their features and symptoms vary widely depending on how long they persist; many go back in time. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) lists 10 distinct types of personality disorders. Some types (. Eg antisocial, borderline) tend to decrease or resolve with age; in other (eg. B. compulsive disorder, schizotypale disorder) that is less likely. About 10% of the population and up to half of psychiatric patients in hospital wards and clinics have a personality disorder. Overall, there are no clear differences in terms of gender, socio-economic class and race. When antisocial personality disorder, the ratio of men and women is, however, 6: 1. In borderline personality disorder, women surpass men by a ratio of 3: 1 (but only in the clinical setting, not in the general population). Among the most personality disorders contributes to about 50% of the inheritance in; this proportion is similar to or higher than in many other major psychiatric disorders. This portion of the inheritance argument against the widespread assumption that personality disorders are character flaws, the v. a. are characterized by a poor environment. The direct health Flege costs and the indirect costs of lost productivity associated with personality disorders, particularly borderline personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive, are significantly higher than comparable costs that are associated with major depression or generalized anxiety disorder. Types of personality disorders DSM-5 groups the 10 kinds of personality disorders in 3 groups (A, B, and C), based on similar characteristics. However, the clinical benefit of this group is not so far been established. Cluster A is characterized by odd or eccentric appearance. It includes the following personality disorders with their distinctive features: Paranoid: eliminate mistrust and suspicion Schizoid: disinterest in other Schizotyp: Eccentric ideas and behavior of cluster B is characterized by dramatic, emotional or erratic behavior. It includes the following personality disorders with their distinctive features: anti-social: social irresponsibility, disrespect for others, deceit and manipulation of others for personal gain limit: can not be alone and theatrical emotional dysregulation: Search narcissistic attention: Underlying gstörtes, fragile self-esteem and open grandiosity cluster C is characterized by anxious or be feared occurrence. It includes the following personality disorders with their distinctive features: Avoidant: avoid human contact due to rejection sensitivity dependent: submission and a necessity, obsessive compulsive disorder to be cared for: Perfektionosmus, rigidity and stubbornness symptoms and complaints According to DSM-5 Personality disorders are primarily problems with the identity interpersonal relations problems with their identity can manifest as an unstable self-image (z. B. the people see themselves alternately as nice or as cruel to) respect or inconsistencies. values, goals and appearance (z. B. people are deeply religious and elsewhere profane and respektl in church os). Interpersonal issues manifest themselves typically as a failure in the establishment and maintenance of close relationships and / or in the form of a lack of sensitivity to the other (eg. B. inability to empathy). People with personality disorders are the people who surround them (including doctors), often inconsistent, confusing and frustrating ago. These people may find it difficult to know the boundaries between self and others. Your self-esteem may be unreasonably high or low. You can show an inconsistent, distant, about emotional, abusive or irresponsible parenting and cause physical and psychological problems with their spouse or their children. People with personality disorders may not realize that they have problems. Diagnosis Clinical criteria (DSM-5) When doctors suspect a personality disorder, evaluate cognitive, affective, interpersonal and behavioral tendencies of using specific diagnostic criteria. More complicated and empirically rigorous diagnostic tools are more specialized and academic clinicians available. The diagnosis of Persönlichkeitssstörung also requires the following: A persistent, inflexible, pervasive pattern of maladaptive personality traits, including ? 2 of the following: Cognition (paths or perception and interpretation of themselves, others and events), affectivity, interpersonal functioning, and impulse control significant distress or impaired functioning of the maladaptive pattern resulting stability and early onset (during youth and early adulthood) of the pattern also other possible causes of symptoms (eg. as other mental disorders, substance use, head trauma) must be excluded. To diagnose a personality disorder <18 years in patients, the pattern for ? 1 year must have been present, <18 years can not be diagnosed with the exception of antisocial personality disorders that beiPatienten. Since many patients lack a personality disorder of insight into its interior, doctors must get the history of doctors who previously treated these patients from other practitioners, family members, friends or others who have contact with them. Therapy Psychotherapy The gold standard of treatment of personality disorders is psychotherapy. Both individual and group psychotherapy also is effective for many of these diseases if the patient seeks treatment and is motivated to change. Typically, personality disorders are not very responsive to medication, although some drugs can effectively target specific symptoms (eg., Depression, anxiety). Disorders that often coexist with personality disorders (eg. As mood, anxiety, substance abuse, somatic symptoms and eating disorders) can do treatments necessary to extend the time to remission, increase the risk of relapse and reduce the response to otherwise effective treatment , For treatment recommendations for each disorder, see table: treatment of personality disorders. Treatment of personality disorders diagnosis psychotherapy drug Paranoid Supportive Psychotherapy Cognitive behavioral therapy antidepressants Atypical antipsychotics Schizoid Supportive psychotherapy training of social skills - Schizotypal Supportive psychotherapy training of social skills Cognitive Behave nstherapie to treat Angstzustäanden antipsychotics Antisocial * Cognitive behavioral therapy Emergency Management antidepressants (SSRIs) mood stabilizers (lithium, valproate) Borderline General (between TT and LL) psychiatric treatment and other structured clinical therapies Supportive psychotherapy Dialectical Behavior Therapy mentalization-based treatment transmission focused psychotherapy scheme Systemic therapy -oriented training for emotional predictability and problem solving Mood stabilizers (lamotrigine, topiramate) in affective Symp tomen, impulsivity and anxiety Atypical antipsychotics for transient psychotic symptoms and anger problems Antidepressants (not harmful, but limited efficacy) avoidance of benzodiazepines and stimulants histrionisch psychodynamic psychotherapy - narcissistic psychodynamic psychotherapy mentalization-based treatment transmission focused psychotherapy - Avoidant psychodynamic psychotherapy supportive psychotherapy Cognitive behavioral therapy Antidepressants (MAOIs, SSRIs) anxiolytics Depending psychodynamic psychotherapy Cognitive behavioral therapy antidepressants (MAOIs, SSRIs) Obsessive-compulsiv psychodynamic psychotherapy Cognitive behavioral therapy antidepressants (SSRIs) * There is controversy about whether an antisocial personality disorder is treatable. General principles of treatment generally has to understand the treatment of personality disorders to target the reduction of subjective stress the empowering patients that their problems are rooted in themselves The significant decrease in maladjusted and socially undesirable behavior The change problematic personality traits The reduction of subjective symptoms (eg . as anxiety, depression) is the ultimate goal. These symptoms often respond to increased psychosocial support, which often leads out to patients from very stressful situations or relationships. Drug therapy can also help to relieve stress. Stress reduction facilitates the treatment of personality disorder underlying. An attempt to make patients realize that their problems are internally should be made early. It is essential that patients understand that based their problems at work or in relationships to their problematic way to get in touch with the world (eg. As tasks, authority or intimate relationships). to achieve such an understanding, requires a significant amount of time, patience and commitment on the part of the doctor. Doctors need regarding a basic understanding of the patient. His emotional sensitivity and its common coping mechanisms. Family members and friends can help identify problems that patients and physicians would otherwise be overlooked. Unadjusted and undesirable behaviors (eg. As recklessness, social isolation, lack of assertiveness, temper outbursts) should be addressed quickly to minimize adverse effects on work and relationships. Behavior modification is for patients with personality disorders following most important. Borderline (between TT and LL) antisocial Avoidant The behavior can be improved within months by group therapy and behavior modification typically; the boundaries of behavior often have to be established and enforced. Sometimes the patients are treated in a day hospital or a residential facility. Support groups or family therapy can also help to change socially undesirable behaviors. As family members and friends that may enhance or reduce problematic behavior or thinking of the patient by their behavior, their involvement in the therapy is helpful; Using coaching they can become allies in treatment. The modification problematic personality traits (eg., Dependencies, distrust, arrogance, manipulative behavior) takes a long time-typically> 1 year. The cornerstone to implement this change is Individual psychotherapy During therapy, try the doctors, then identify interpersonal problems when they occur in the life of the patient. The doctors help patients then understand how these problems are with their personality traits, and provide skills training to develop new and better ways of interacting. To support patients in changing their maladaptive behaviors and false beliefs, doctors typically need to reassert the unwanted behaviors and their consequences until patients become aware of them. Although doctors should proceed sensitively, they should be aware that quality and sensitive advice per se personality disorders do not change. Important points personality disorders include rigid, conformist personality traits that are so severe that they cause major stress or affect the operation and / or interpersonal functioning. Treatments are only effective when patients realize that their problems rooted in themselves and are not simply caused from the outside. Psychosocial therapies are the main treatment. Medications help only in selected cases, specific symptoms to control-z. Example in control of considerable anxiety, rage and depression. Personality disorders are often resistant to change, but many go with the times back gradually.

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