Renal Tubular Acidosis

(RTA) The renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a acidosis and electrolyte imbalance due to an impaired renal hydrogen ion secretion (Type 1), a disturbed Bicarbonatresorption (type 2) or abnormal aldosterone or reaction (type 4). Type 3 is extremely rare and is not discussed here. Patients may be asymptomatic, or they show symptoms and signs of electrolyte imbalance or fall into a chronic kidney disease. Diagnosis is based on characteristic changes…

Read More >>

Renal Vein Thrombosis

The renal vein thrombosis is the thrombotic occlusion of one or both main renal vein, which leads to acute renal failure or chronic kidney disease. Common causes include nephrotic syndrome, primary Hyperkoagulabilitätsstörungen, malignant kidney tumors, extrinsic compression, injuries and rare inflammatory bowel diseases. It can be symptoms of kidney failure and sometimes nausea, vomiting, flank pain, hematuria, observe decreased urine output or systemic manifestations of venous thromboembolism. The diagnosis is…

Read More >>

Rendered Child

A newborn is considered to be transmitted when it is born after 42 weeks. The reason for transmission is unknown in most cases, but a previous transfer increases the risk by 2 to 3 times. Transmission, by anomalies concerning the fetal pituitary-adrenal axis and the X-linked ichthyosis (ichthyosis Hereditary ichthyosis) (such as anencephaly, Nebennierenhypoplasie, congenital adrenal hyperplasia.), Which is associated with a placental sulfatase deficiency, caused. A newborn is considered…

Read More >>

Representation Of Thyroid Function

The thyroid gland, which is located at the front of the neck just below the Krikoid, consists of 2 lobes, which are connected together by an isthmus. Follicular cells within the gland produce the 2 major thyroid hormones tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine, T4) triiodothyronine (T3) These hormones act almost all tissues of the body in cells, by binding to receptors of the cell nuclei and so influence the expression of a whole…

Read More >>

Reproductive Endocrinology Woman

The hypothalamus secretes a small peptide from which gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, also known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone known). The hormonal interaction between the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovaries controls the reproductive system of women. The hypothalamus secretes a small peptide from which gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, also known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone known). GnRH controls the release of the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from specialized (gonadotropic) cells…

Read More >>

Respiratory Acidosis

A respiratory acidosis is a primary increase in Carbondioxid partial pressure (PCO2) with or without a compensatory increase of bicarbonate (HCO3-); the pH is usually low, but may be almost normal. The cause is a decrease in respiratory rate and / or tidal volume (hypoventilation), typically by iatrogenic disorders of the central nervous system, the lungs or under measures. A respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic. The chronic form…

Read More >>

Respiratory Alkalosis

A respiratory alkalosis is a primary drop in PCO2 with or without compensatory waste of bicarbonate (HCO3-). The pH can be high or almost normal. The cause is an increase in respiratory rate and / or tidal volume (hyperventilation). A respiratory alkalosis can be acute or chronic. The chronic form is asymptomatic, but the acute form may cause dizziness, confusion, paresthesias, cramps and syncope cause. The clinical signs are Hyperpnea…

Read More >>

Respiratory Bronchiolitis Interstitial Lung Disease

Respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (R picture) is a disorder characterized by inflammation of the small airways and interstitial lung disease that occurs in smokers. R picture is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (R picture) is a disorder characterized by inflammation of the small airways and interstitial lung disease that occurs in smokers. R picture is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Most smokers…

Read More >>

Respiratory Failure At A Glance

As respiratory failure is defined as a life-threatening deterioration of oxygenation, CO2 elimination or both. Respiratory failure is caused by a deterioration of gas exchange, reduction in ventilation or a combination thereof. To the usual clinical signs include dyspnea, use of accessory respiratory muscles, tachypnea, tachycardia, increased sweating, cyanosis, a change in the level of consciousness and, without treatment, clouding, cardiac arrest and death. The diagnosis is made clinically essentially….

Read More >>