Riboflavin

(Vitamin B2) A riboflavin deficiency usually occurs with other B vitamin deficiencies. Symptomatic are a sore throat, lesions of the lips and oral mucosa, glossitis, conjunctivitis, seborrheic dermatitis and normochromic, normocytic anemia. The diagnosis is made clinically in general. To treat riboflavin is i.m. orally or as needed administered. Riboflavin acts as an essential coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism in numerous redox reactions with (see table: sources, functions and effects of…

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Rickettsialpox

(Vesicular rickettsiosis) Rickettsialpox caused by Rickettsia akari. Of symptoms, there is an initial local lesion and a generalized rash papulovesicular. Rickettsialpox, a rickettsial disease occur in many areas of the US and Russia, Korea and Africa. The vector is a small, colorless mite, which is widespread. It infects the house mouse and some species of wild mice. People can become infected by bites from “Chigger” (mite larvae) or adult mites….

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Rifamycins

Rifamycins are bactericidal and suppress the RNA synthesis by inhibiting the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (see Table: rifamycins). Rifamycins rifampicin rifabutin rifaximin rifapentine rifampin, rifabutin and rifapentine rifampin, rifabutin and rifapentine have similar pharmacological properties, antimicrobial activity spectra and unwanted effects. Pharmacology The absorption after oral administration is good and leads to a broad distribution in body tissues and fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid. Rifampicin accumulates in polymorphonuclear granulocytes and macrophages, which…

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Renal Trauma

Most kidney injury (85-90% of cases) caused by blunt injuries, usually caused by car accidents, falls or assaults. Most injuries are geringgradig. The most common associated injuries involve the head, CNS, breast, spleen and liver. Penetrating injuries occur as a rule from gunshot wounds and are usually multiple intra-abdominal injuries, most connected to the breast, liver, intestines and spleen. The kidney is injured in up to 10% of patients who…

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Renal Tubular Acidosis

(RTA) The renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a acidosis and electrolyte imbalance due to an impaired renal hydrogen ion secretion (Type 1), a disturbed Bicarbonatresorption (type 2) or abnormal aldosterone or reaction (type 4). Type 3 is extremely rare and is not discussed here. Patients may be asymptomatic, or they show symptoms and signs of electrolyte imbalance or fall into a chronic kidney disease. Diagnosis is based on characteristic changes…

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Renal Vein Thrombosis

The renal vein thrombosis is the thrombotic occlusion of one or both main renal vein, which leads to acute renal failure or chronic kidney disease. Common causes include nephrotic syndrome, primary Hyperkoagulabilitätsstörungen, malignant kidney tumors, extrinsic compression, injuries and rare inflammatory bowel diseases. It can be symptoms of kidney failure and sometimes nausea, vomiting, flank pain, hematuria, observe decreased urine output or systemic manifestations of venous thromboembolism. The diagnosis is…

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Rendered Child

A newborn is considered to be transmitted when it is born after 42 weeks. The reason for transmission is unknown in most cases, but a previous transfer increases the risk by 2 to 3 times. Transmission, by anomalies concerning the fetal pituitary-adrenal axis and the X-linked ichthyosis (ichthyosis Hereditary ichthyosis) (such as anencephaly, Nebennierenhypoplasie, congenital adrenal hyperplasia.), Which is associated with a placental sulfatase deficiency, caused. A newborn is considered…

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Representation Of Thyroid Function

The thyroid gland, which is located at the front of the neck just below the Krikoid, consists of 2 lobes, which are connected together by an isthmus. Follicular cells within the gland produce the 2 major thyroid hormones tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine, T4) triiodothyronine (T3) These hormones act almost all tissues of the body in cells, by binding to receptors of the cell nuclei and so influence the expression of a whole…

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Reproductive Endocrinology Woman

The hypothalamus secretes a small peptide from which gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, also known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone known). The hormonal interaction between the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovaries controls the reproductive system of women. The hypothalamus secretes a small peptide from which gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, also known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone known). GnRH controls the release of the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from specialized (gonadotropic) cells…

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