Vocal Cord Paralysis

A vocal cord paralysis can have many causes and may affect speaking, breathing and swallowing. The left vocal cord is affected twice as often as the right, and women are affected (in a ratio of 3: 2) more often than men. The diagnosis is based on the findings of laryngoscopy. To determine the cause an extensive investigation may be necessary. If the cause can not cure, there are several surgical…

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Vocal Cord Polyps, Nodules And Granulomas

In an acute trauma or chronic irritation of the vocal folds can change so that eventually develop polyps, nodules or granulomas. All lead to hoarseness and a breathy (breathy) vote. If symptoms persist longer than 3 weeks, you should definitely take the vocal folds inspected. The diagnosis is based on laryngoscopic examination findings and biopsy in selected cases to rule out cancer. After careful surgical removal of the lesions, the…

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Volatile Nitrites

Nitrites ( “poppers” such as amyl -, butyl – or isobutyl). Are the intensification of sensations, especially sexual pleasure, inhaled. A significant risk could not be detected, although nitrites and nitrates can cause vasodilation short hypotension, dizziness and flushing, followed by reflex tachycardia (see Table: Symptoms and treatment of specific toxins). Nitrites can cause methemoglobinemia. but is dangerous in combination with phosphodiesterase-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, which…

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Volatile Solvents

The inhalation of industrial solvents and aerosol sprays can cause a state of intoxication. A long-term use can cause neuropathy and hepatotoxicity. The use of volatile solvents (eg. Acetates, alcohol, chloroform, ether, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketones) is further a problem that is endemic in adolescents. Ordinary products (. Eg glues and adhesives, paints, paint strippers, cleaning agents) containing these substances; thus the access for children and young…

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Volume Overload

A volume overload refers generally to an expansion of the ECF volume. An expansion of the ECF volume typically occurs during heart failure, nephrotic syndrome and in liver cirrhosis. A renal sodium retention leads to an increase of total body sodium content. This increase results in varying degrees of volume overload. In heart failure, the decreased ECF volume leads to an increased effective circulating volume, which in turn causes the…

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Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome (Vhl)

The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is a rare inherited disorder that is characterized by neurocutaneous benign and malignant tumors in multiple organs. The diagnosis is made by ophthalmoscopy or imaging to study on tumors. The treatment is carried out by means of surgery or radiotherapy or sometimes, for retinal angiomas, laser photocoagulation or cryotherapy. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) is a neurocutaneous syndrome that occurs in 1 in 36,000 people and is autosomal…

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Von Willebrand Syndrome

(Von Willebrand’s disease) The von Willebrand syndrome is a genetic disease in which a lack of von Willebrand factor (vWF) is leading to a platelet dysfunction. Usually a slight bleeding is present. Screening tests show normal platelet counts and occasionally a slightly prolonged PTT. The diagnosis is made by the detection of low vWF antigen levels and an abnormal ristocetin cofactor activity. The treatment consists in a control of bleeding…

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Voyeuristic Disorder

(Voyeurism) Voyeurism designated achieving sexual arousal by observing other people who are naked, undress or are in the sexually active. In secret observing unsuspecting people of this sexual behavior often leads to conflict with the law and in relationships. A voyeuristic disorder involves interacting with voyeuristic impulses or fantasies with the non-consenting person or experiencing significant suffering or impairment of functioning due to such urges and impulses. Voyeurism is a…

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Vulvar Cancer

The vulvar cancer is typically a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, which usually occurs in older women. Usually, it shows up as palpable mass. The diagnosis is made by biopsy. The treatment consists of excision and inguinal and femoral lymph node dissection. The vulvar cancer is the fourth most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States; it is responsible for 5% of the malignancies of the female genital tract…

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Vitamin B12

(Cobalamins) A nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency develops in inadequate absorption, but he can also relate to vegans who do not use vitamin supplements. Due to the lack creates a megaloblastic anemia, damage to the white matter of the spinal cord and brain, and peripheral neuropathy. The diagnosis is usually to decrease serum levels of vitamin B12. The Schilling test provides insights into the etiology. Therapeutic Vitamin B12 is administered orally…

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