Voyeuristic Disorder

(Voyeurism) Voyeurism designated achieving sexual arousal by observing other people who are naked, undress or are in the sexually active. In secret observing unsuspecting people of this sexual behavior often leads to conflict with the law and in relationships. A voyeuristic disorder involves interacting with voyeuristic impulses or fantasies with the non-consenting person or experiencing significant suffering or impairment of functioning due to such urges and impulses. Voyeurism is a…

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Vulvar Cancer

The vulvar cancer is typically a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, which usually occurs in older women. Usually, it shows up as palpable mass. The diagnosis is made by biopsy. The treatment consists of excision and inguinal and femoral lymph node dissection. The vulvar cancer is the fourth most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States; it is responsible for 5% of the malignancies of the female genital tract…

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Vitamin B12

(Cobalamins) A nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency develops in inadequate absorption, but he can also relate to vegans who do not use vitamin supplements. Due to the lack creates a megaloblastic anemia, damage to the white matter of the spinal cord and brain, and peripheral neuropathy. The diagnosis is usually to decrease serum levels of vitamin B12. The Schilling test provides insights into the etiology. Therapeutic Vitamin B12 is administered orally…

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Waiving Resuscitation (Vaw- Arrangement) And Medical Instructions For Life-Sustaining Treatments

Physicians should discuss with their patients the possibility of cardiac and respiratory arrest and describe the procedures for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the possible outcomes and ask their patients about their preferences. If the patient is unable to make a decision on the revival of an alternate who can make this decision by drawing on previously articulated wishes of the patient in the best interest of the patient. Abandoning resuscitation (VAW-arrangement)…

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Vitamin C

(Ascorbic acid) In industrialized countries, a vitamin C deficiency can occur with general malnutrition, but a severe deficiency, which is the cause of scurvy is very rare. Among the deficiency symptoms fatigue, depression and connective tissue damage include (z. B. gingivitis, petechiae, erythema, internal bleeding, delayed wound healing). For infants and babies bone growth is inhibited. The diagnosis is made clinically in general. For the treatment of the lack of…

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Warts

(Verrucae vulgaris) Warts are common, benign epidermal lesions caused by infection with the human papilloma virus. They can occur on the body with different morphs everywhere. The diagnosis is made clinically. Warts are self-limiting, usually, however, can and topical or injected substances are treated by destructive methods (for. Example, excision, cautery, cryotherapy, liquid nitrogen). The prevalence of warts is very high in patients of all ages, but mostly children to…

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Vitamin D

Inadequate stay in sunlight predisposes a vitamin D deficiency. In order for the bone mineralization is impaired children suffer from rickets, osteomalacia in adults and may be easier to osteoporosis. The diagnosis is made (D2 + D3) in the measurement of the serum 25 (OH) D. For therapy, vitamin D, calcium and phosphate are given orally. Often, prevention is possible. Rare hereditary diseases lead to a disturbed vitamin D metabolism…

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Water And Sodium Balance

The equilibrium of water and sodium is interdependent to a great extent. The total body water (TBW = total body water) is about 60% of body weight in men (with variations between 50% in obese people up to 70% in lean humans) and about 50% in women. Nearly one-third of the TBW are located in the intracellular compartment (intracellular fluid or ICF); the other third is extracellular (extracellular fluid, or…

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Vitamin E

(Tocopherol) A nutritional vitamin E deficiency is common in developing countries; a deficiency in adults rarely occurs in developed countries, which usually attributed to a fat malabsorption. The main symptoms are hemolytic anemia and neurological disorders. The diagnosis is based on the ratio of plasma alpha-tocopherol to total plasma lipids; a lower quotient value suggests a vitamin E deficiency. For therapy, high-dose vitamin E is administered orally when neurologic deficits…

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Weakness

Weakness can affect few or many muscles and suddenly or develop gradually. Depending on the cause other symptoms may be present. Weakness of certain muscle groups can also cause disorders of eye movements, dysarthria, dysphagia or respiratory depression. Weakness is one of the most common reasons why patients are presented in primary care. Under weakness, loss of muscle strength will be understood; However, many patients speak of weakness, when they…

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