What is Whipple’s Disease

(Whipple’s disease; Intestinal lipodystrophy) The Whipple’s disease is a severe disease, which is caused by the bacterium Tropheryma Whipple’s. Leading symptoms include arthritis, weight loss, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The diagnosis is completed with a small bowel biopsy. Initial treatment consists of the administration of ceftriaxone or penicillin, followed by trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for at least one year. When Whipple’s disease is a malabsorption syndrome. This typically means that nutrients cannot be…

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What is the Wilms Tumor

(Wilms’ tumor, nephroblastoma) Understanding the Wilms Tumor Cancer is categorized typically when a group of cells in the body begin to grow out of control often with detrimental impact. Cells in practically any section of the body can grow cancerous and can spread to other areas of the body. Wilms tumor (also called Wilms’ tumor or nephroblastoma) is a type of cancer that originates in the kidneys. It is the…

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Wilson’S Disease

(Wilson’s disease, Hereditary copper toxicity) The Wilson’s disease leads to accumulation of copper in the liver and other organs. Hepatic or neurological symptoms develop. The diagnosis is based on a low caeruloplasmin, high urinary copper excretion and the results of a liver biopsy. The treatment consists of a low-copper diet and drugs such as penicillamine or trientine. Wilson’s disease is a disorder of copper metabolism that affects men and women;…

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Volatile Nitrites

Nitrites ( “poppers” such as amyl -, butyl – or isobutyl). Are the intensification of sensations, especially sexual pleasure, inhaled. A significant risk could not be detected, although nitrites and nitrates can cause vasodilation short hypotension, dizziness and flushing, followed by reflex tachycardia (see Table: Symptoms and treatment of specific toxins). Nitrites can cause methemoglobinemia. but is dangerous in combination with phosphodiesterase-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, which…

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Volatile Solvents

The inhalation of industrial solvents and aerosol sprays can cause a state of intoxication. A long-term use can cause neuropathy and hepatotoxicity. The use of volatile solvents (eg. Acetates, alcohol, chloroform, ether, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketones) is further a problem that is endemic in adolescents. Ordinary products (. Eg glues and adhesives, paints, paint strippers, cleaning agents) containing these substances; thus the access for children and young…

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Volume Overload

A volume overload refers generally to an expansion of the ECF volume. An expansion of the ECF volume typically occurs during heart failure, nephrotic syndrome and in liver cirrhosis. A renal sodium retention leads to an increase of total body sodium content. This increase results in varying degrees of volume overload. In heart failure, the decreased ECF volume leads to an increased effective circulating volume, which in turn causes the…

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Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome (Vhl)

The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is a rare inherited disorder that is characterized by neurocutaneous benign and malignant tumors in multiple organs. The diagnosis is made by ophthalmoscopy or imaging to study on tumors. The treatment is carried out by means of surgery or radiotherapy or sometimes, for retinal angiomas, laser photocoagulation or cryotherapy. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) is a neurocutaneous syndrome that occurs in 1 in 36,000 people and is autosomal…

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Von Willebrand Syndrome

(Von Willebrand’s disease) The von Willebrand syndrome is a genetic disease in which a lack of von Willebrand factor (vWF) is leading to a platelet dysfunction. Usually a slight bleeding is present. Screening tests show normal platelet counts and occasionally a slightly prolonged PTT. The diagnosis is made by the detection of low vWF antigen levels and an abnormal ristocetin cofactor activity. The treatment consists in a control of bleeding…

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Voyeuristic Disorder

(Voyeurism) Voyeurism designated achieving sexual arousal by observing other people who are naked, undress or are in the sexually active. In secret observing unsuspecting people of this sexual behavior often leads to conflict with the law and in relationships. A voyeuristic disorder involves interacting with voyeuristic impulses or fantasies with the non-consenting person or experiencing significant suffering or impairment of functioning due to such urges and impulses. Voyeurism is a…

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Vulvar Cancer

The vulvar cancer is typically a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, which usually occurs in older women. Usually, it shows up as palpable mass. The diagnosis is made by biopsy. The treatment consists of excision and inguinal and femoral lymph node dissection. The vulvar cancer is the fourth most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States; it is responsible for 5% of the malignancies of the female genital tract…

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