X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome Inherited

(Duncan’s syndrome) The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is a result of a defect in the T-cells and natural killer cells and is characterized by an abnormal sensitivity to Epstein-Barr virus infections. This can lead to liver failure, immunodeficiency, lymphoma, fatal lymphoproliferative diseases or bone marrow aplasia. (See also Overview of immune deficiency disorders, and approach to the patient with an immunodeficiency disorder.) The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is a result of a…

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X-Ray And Other Imaging Contrast Examinations

The main contraindication in X-ray contrast media studies is a suspicion of a perforation because free barium causes severe irritation to the mediastinum or peritoneum; water-soluble contrast agents are less irritating and can be used in cases of possible perforation. In elderly patients, storage and rotation for optimum positioning of barium and intraluminal air often causes difficulties. X-ray and other imaging contrast examinations are the entire GIT from the pharynx…

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X-Ray Contrast Media And Contrast Media Reactions

Iodinated contrast agents may be Radiopaque contrast agents are often used in radiography and fluoroscopy, to distinguish boundaries between tissues of similar X-ray density. Most contrast agents containing iodine. Iodinated contrast agents may be Ionic Nonionic Ionic contrast media, the salts are hyperosmolar as compared to blood. Ionic contrast agent should be used either for myelographic investigations, nor for injections in which it into the spinal canal (neurotoxic risk side…

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Vitamin D

Inadequate stay in sunlight predisposes a vitamin D deficiency. In order for the bone mineralization is impaired children suffer from rickets, osteomalacia in adults and may be easier to osteoporosis. The diagnosis is made (D2 + D3) in the measurement of the serum 25 (OH) D. For therapy, vitamin D, calcium and phosphate are given orally. Often, prevention is possible. Rare hereditary diseases lead to a disturbed vitamin D metabolism…

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Water And Sodium Balance

The equilibrium of water and sodium is interdependent to a great extent. The total body water (TBW = total body water) is about 60% of body weight in men (with variations between 50% in obese people up to 70% in lean humans) and about 50% in women. Nearly one-third of the TBW are located in the intracellular compartment (intracellular fluid or ICF); the other third is extracellular (extracellular fluid, or…

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Vitamin E

(Tocopherol) A nutritional vitamin E deficiency is common in developing countries; a deficiency in adults rarely occurs in developed countries, which usually attributed to a fat malabsorption. The main symptoms are hemolytic anemia and neurological disorders. The diagnosis is based on the ratio of plasma alpha-tocopherol to total plasma lipids; a lower quotient value suggests a vitamin E deficiency. For therapy, high-dose vitamin E is administered orally when neurologic deficits…

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Weakness

Weakness can affect few or many muscles and suddenly or develop gradually. Depending on the cause other symptoms may be present. Weakness of certain muscle groups can also cause disorders of eye movements, dysarthria, dysphagia or respiratory depression. Weakness is one of the most common reasons why patients are presented in primary care. Under weakness, loss of muscle strength will be understood; However, many patients speak of weakness, when they…

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Vitamin K

Vitamin K deficiency is caused by a totally inadequate supply, a fat malabsorption, or the use of Kumarinantikoagulanzien. It is particularly common in breastfed infants, and impaired blood clotting. A suspicion results from findings routinely performed coagulation tests and is confirmed when vitamin K is effect. Therapeutically Vitamin K is given orally or parenterally when a fat malabsorption, or if the risk of bleeding is the cause high. Vitamin K1…

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Vitiligo

Vitiligo is the loss of skin melanocytes with circumscribed depigmented skin areas of different sizes. The cause is unknown, but is likely based on genetic and autoimmune factors. The diagnosis is usually clear from the skin findings. Common treatments include topical corticosteroids (often with calcipotriol combined), calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus and pimecrolimus), and narrow-band ultraviolet (UV) B psoralen and UVA If large areas are affected, the disease may respond to narrow…

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Vocal Cord Dysfunction

(Paradoxical vocal chord movement disorder) A vocal cord dysfunction is more common in women aged 20-40. The etiology is unclear, but it seems to be related to anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and personality disorders in context. It is not as a factitious disorder (i. E. Patients do not do it consciously) is considered. A paradoxical or dysfunctional vocal chord movement is defined as an adduction of the vocal cords…

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