Vitamins can Fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E and K) in water (B vitamins and vitamin C) to the B vitamins include biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin (B2), thiamin (B1), B6 ??(eg. as pyridoxine) and vitamin B12 (cobalamin). For demand to sources, functions, effects of too low and toxic dosage, blood tests and the usual therapeutic doses of vitamins s. see Table: Recommended daily intake of vitamins and sources, functions and effects of vitamins. The need for vitamins (and other nutrients) is expressed as daily recommended intake (Daily recommended intake, DRI). At the recommended daily intake three types are distinguished: Recommended Daily Allowance (Recommended daily allowance, RDA): This was formulated to describe the needs of 97 to 98% of healthy people. (Intake Adequaite AI) adequate nutrient intake Where the calculated on the basis of the recommended daily dose data are insufficient due to adequate supply on observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by healthy people. Tolerable intake (Tolerable Upper Intake Level, UL): This is the largest amount of a nutrient that can be taken daily by most adults without risk of adverse health effects. In industrialized countries, stir vitamin deficiencies can mainly following her: Poverty food whims drug interactions between nutrients and medications and potential interactions between vitamins and active ingredients) alcoholism Longer and inadequate parenteral nutrition malabsorption A mild vitamin deficiency is common among frail and accommodated in nursing homes elderly, a protein have -Energy malnutrition. In developing countries, vitamin deficiencies can result from lack of access to nutrients. The lack of water-soluble vitamins (except vitamin B12) leads to weeks to months for malnutrition. A lack of fat-soluble vitamins and vitamin B12 required> 1 year, to develop because the body stores them in relatively large quantities. The vitamin intake that is sufficient to prevent a classic vitamin deficiencies (such as scurvy or beriberi) may not be sufficient for optimal health. This area remains controversial and is an area of ??active research. A vitamin dependency results from a genetic defect that affects the vitamin metabolism. In some cases, the administration of vitamins improves in 1000-fold dose of the daily recommended intake (DRI = daily recommended intake;… Translator’s note .: English abbreviation “DRI” is nutritionally as “dietary reference intake” = reference values ??for nutrient intake,) advertised the function of changes induced by the defect metabolic processes. A Vitaminintoxikation (hypervitaminosis) is created by the supply of an overdose of vitamins A, D, C, B6, or niacin. Since many people eat irregularly, provide food alone of some vitamins only suboptimal levels. In these cases, there is a higher risk of cancer or other diseases. However, could not be proven that occupied multivitamin supplements reduce the risk of cancer every day. Supplementation with vitamins does not seem to prevent cardiovascular disease (1,2) or decreases (3,4,5,6). Recommended daily vitamin intake age (years) Folate (mcg) of niacin (mg NE *) Riboflavin (mg) Thiamin (mg) of vitamin A (mcg) of vitamin B6 (mg) of vitamin B12 (mcg) vitamin C (mg) of vitamin D (IE) vitamin e (mg) of vitamin K (mcg) infants 0-6 months 65 2 0.3 0.2 400 0.1 0.4 40 400 4 2.0 7-12 months 80 4 0.4 0.3 500 0.3 0.5 50 400 5 2.5 children 1-3 150 6 0.5 0.5 300 0.5 0.9 15 600 6 30 4-8 200 8 0.6 0.6 400 0.6 1.2 25 600 7 55 men 9-13 300 12 0.9 0.9 600 1.0 1.8 45 600 11 60 14-18 400 16 1.3 1.2 900 1.3 2.4 75 600 15 75 19-70 400 16 1.3 1.2 900 1.3 2.4 90 600 15 120> 70 400 16 1.3 1.2 900 1.7 2.4 90,800 15,120 women 9-13 300 12 0.9 0.9 600 1.0 1.8 45 600 11 60 14-18 400 14 1.0 1.0 700 1.2 2.4 65 600 15 75 19-70 400 14 1.1 1.1 700 1.3 2.4 75 600 15 90 ? 70 400 14 1.1 1.1 700 1.5 2.4 75 800 15 90 pregnant women 19-50 years 600 18 1.4 1.4 770 1.9 2.6 85 600 15 90 lactating 19-50 years 500 17 1.6 1.4 1300 2.0 2.8 120 600 19 90 Upper absorption limit (UL) § 1000 35 ND ND ND 3000 100 2000 4000 1000 ND Note: The recommended daily allowance (RDA) will be played in normal font. A nutrient intake according to RDA guidelines cover the needs of 97 to 98% of healthy people. The appropriate nutrient intake (AI) is shown in bold. Enrich the collected data is not sufficient to calculate the RDA values ??for a nutrient, based on the adequate nutrient intake observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by healthy people. * 1 niacin equivalent (NE) corresponds to 1 mg or 60 mg of niacin dietary tryptophan. 200 I.U. Vitamin D correspond to 5 mcg cholecalciferol. 800 I.U. Vitamin D is recommended for people ? 70 years. §UL is the highest amount of a nutrient that can perform daily without adverse effect most adults. The more the upper retainer limit is exceeded, the greater the risk of side effects. ND = not determinable; can not be determined because data are insufficient (supply sources should be limited to food); RAE = retinol equivalent activity; Retinol equivalent (1 mcg RAE of the preformed vitamin A = 3.33 I.U.). Adapted from Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Sources, functions and effects of vitamins nutrient main sources functions impact Raw green leafy vegetables, fruits, meats (eg., Liver) of deficiency and intoxication folate (folic acid), fortified cereals and breads maturation of red blood cells synthesis of purines, pyrimidines and methionine development of the fetal nervous system deficiency: Megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defect newborns, confusion niacin (nicotinic acid, nicotinamide) Liver, red meat, fish, poultry, legumes, whole-grain or enriched cereals and breads redox reactions carbohydrate and cell metabolism deficiency: pellagra (dermatitis, glossitis, gastrointestinal and CNS dysfunction) intoxication: Blush riboflavin (vitamin B2) milk, cheese, liver , meat, eggs, fortified cereal products Numerous aspects of carbohydrate and protein metabolism intact mucous membranes deficiency: cheilosis, stomatitis angular, vascularization of the cornea thiamine (vitamin B1) whole grains, meat (v. a. Pork and liver), enriched grain products, nuts, legumes, potatoes carbohydrates, fats, amino acids, glucose and alcohol metabolic function of central and peripheral nerve cells myocardial deficiency: beriberi (peripheral neuropathy, heart failure), Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome Vitamin A (retinol) as vitamin precursor: cod liver oil, liver, egg yolk, butter, enriched with vitamin a dairy products as provitamin carotenoids: dark green and yellow vegetables, carrots, yellow and orange fruits formation of rhodopsin (a photoreceptor pigment in the retina) Intact epithelium stability of lysosomes glycoprotein synthesis deficiency: night blindness , perifollicular hyperkeratosis, xerophthalmia , Keratomalacia, increased morbidity and mortality of infants intoxication include headache, skin peeling, hepatosplenomegaly, bone thickening, intracranial hypertension, papilledema, hypercalcemia vitamin B6 group (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) offal (z. As liver), whole grains, fish, legumes Many aspects of nitrogen metabolism (eg, transamination, porphyrin and heme synthesis, conversion of tryptophan into niacin) biosynthesis of nucleic acids fatty acids, lipids and amino acid metabolism deficiency. Convulsions, anemia, neuropathy, dermatitis intoxication: peripheral neuropathy vitamin B12 (cobalamin) meat (especially beef / pork and offal [. eg liver]), poultry, eggs, fortified cereal, milk and dairy products, clams, oysters, mackerel, salmon maturation of red blood cells , neuronal function, DNA synthesis, myelin synthesis and repair deficiency: (megaloblastic anemia, neurological deficits confusion, Parästhesi s, ataxia) Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli, strawberries, sweet peppers collagen formation health of bones and blood vessels carnitine, hormones and amino acids formation wound healing deficiency: scurvy (haemorrhage, tooth loss, gingivitis, bone defects) Vitamin D (cholecalciferol ergocalciferol) Direct UV-B irradiation of the skin (primary source), fortified milk products (primary food source), cod liver oil, oily fish, liver absorption of calcium and phosphate mineralization and repair of bone absorption of calcium in the renal tubules insulin and Schilddrüsenfu creation function, strengthen the immune system, reduced risk of autoimmune disease deficiency: rickets (sometimes with tetany), osteomalacia intoxication: Herbal hypercalcemia, anorexia, kidney failure, metastatic calcification vitamin E group (alpha-tocopherol, other tocopherols) oils, nuts Intracellular antioxidant scavenger free radicals in biological membranes deficiency: hemolysis of red blood cells, neurological deficits intoxication: bleeding vitamin K group (phylloquinone, menaquinones) Green leafy vegetables (v. a. Cabbage, spinach and lettuce), soybeans, vegetable oils bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract after the neonatal formation of prothrombin, other coagulation factors and bone proteins deficiency: bleeding by Prothrombinmangel and other factors, osteopenia Potential interactions between vitamins and active ingredients nutrient agent Biotin antibiotics, antiepileptics folate Alcohol, 5-fluorouracil, metformin, methotrexate, oral contraceptives, anti-convulsants (e.g.. As phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone), sulfasalazine, triamterene, trimethoprim niacin alcohol, isoniazid riboflavin alcohol, barbiturates, phenothiazines, thiazide diuretics, tricyclic antidepressants thiamine alcohol, oral contraceptives, Thiaminantagonisten in coffee, tea, raw fish and red cabbage vitamin A cholestyramine, mineral oil vitamin B6 alcohol, anticonvulsants, Corticosteroids, cycloserine, hydralazine, isoniazid, levodopa, oral contraceptives, penicillamine, vitamin B12 antacids, metformin, laughing gas (repeated exposure) Vitamin C corticosteroids Vitamin D antipsychotics, mineral oil, antiepileptics, rifampin, vitamin E oil, warfarin Vitamin K antibiotics, antiepileptics, mineral oil, rifampicin, War farina Notes 1. Myung SK, Ju W, Cho B, et al: Efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMJ F? second Sesso HD, Christen WG, Bubes V, et al: Multivitamins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: The Physicians’ Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA308 (17): 1751-1756, 2012. 3. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Orav EJ, et al: Monthly high-dose vitamin D treatment for the prevention of functional decline: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 176 (2): 175-183, 2016. 4. Cummings SR, Kiel DP, Black DM: Vitamin D supplementation and Increased risk of falling: A cautionary tale of vitamin supplements retold. JAMA Intern Med 176 (2): 171-172, 2016. 5. Uusi-Rasi K, R Patil, Karinkanta S, Kannus P, et al: Exercise and vitamin D in case prevention among older women: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 75 (5): 703-711, 2015. 6. LeBlanc ES, Chou R: vitamin D and falls adaptation of new data with current guidelines. JAMA Intern Med 175 (5): 712-713,, 2015.