The skin can (light sensitivity, sunburn z. B.) react to sunlight changes with chronic (z. B. dermatoheliosis [aging], actinic keratoses) or acute. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation The sun radiates a plurality of electromagnetic radiation. Most of the dermatological effects of sunlight caused by UV radiation, which is divided into 3 bands (UVA, 320 to 400 nm; UVB, 280 to 320 nm; and UVC, 100 to 280 nm). Since the atmosphere filters the radiation only UVA and UVB reach the earth’s surface. The character and the amount of sunburn-producing rays (primarily wavelengths <320 nm) that reach the Earth's surface, vary widely with the following factors: Nature of atmosphere and Earth's surface Latitude season daytime high altitude ozone layer, the sun light exposure of the skin also depends on several aspects of life from (z. B. clothes, work, leisure activities). Sunburn-producing rays are filtered through glass and mostly by thick clouds, smoke and smog, but they can pass light clouds, mist or 30 cm of clear water and may cause severe burning. Snow, sand and water increase the radiation exposure by reflection. The suspension is in low latitude (closer to the equator) in the summer and during lunch time (10 o'clock in the morning to 3 o'clock in the afternoon) increases because the sunlight passes through the atmosphere under these conditions direct (i. H. Under a smaller angle). The suspension is greater in higher elevations, mainly because of the thinner atmosphere. Stratospheric ozone, filters the UV light in particular wavelength is shorter, by man-made chlorofluorocarbon (z. B. refrigerants and aerosols) degraded. A decreased ozone layer increases the amount of UVA and UVB that reaches the earth's surface. Artificial tanning lamps using light having more than UVA UVB. The use of UVA is often advertised as "safer" way to tan, but many of the same long-term harmful effects as UVB exposure occur, including photoaging and skin cancer. UV light from tanning beds emit, has been classified as a human carcinogen, and it has been shown that tanning beds increase the risk of melanoma. There is simply no "safe" tan. Pathophysiology Adverse effects of UV exposure include acute sunburn and various chronic changes. Chronic changes include skin thickening, wrinkling and certain lesions such as actinic keratosis and cancer. By sunlight, it is also to inactivation and loss of epidermal Langerhans cells, which are an important part of the immune system of the skin. As a protective response after exposure to sunlight, the epidermis thickens and the melanocytes produce increasing the pigment melanin, which leads to what is commonly known as "tanning". Skin Tanning provides some natural protection against UV radiation, but otherwise has no health benefits. People differ in their sensitivity and reaction to sunlight very, mainly depends on the melanin content of the skin. The skin is of decreasing sensitivity to sun damage in six types (I - VI) divided. The classification is based on the factors related to skin color, UV sensitivity and response to sun exposure. Skin type I is light-skinned pigmented up only slightly, very UV-sensitive, developed no immediate pigment increase, always quickly gets sunburn and will never brown. Skin type VI dark brown or black, is usually protected from UV light and has a deep dark color (black and brown) with or without sun exposure. However, dark-skinned people are not immune to the effects of sun and heavily pigmented skin can develop sun damage with heavy or prolonged exposure. The long-term effects of UV exposure in dark-skinned people are the same as in fair-skinned people, but they are often delayed and less severe because the melanin in their skin has a built-in UV protection. People with blond or red hair are especially susceptible to the acute and chronic effects of UV radiation. Many fair-haired people an irregular Melanozytaktivierung occurs, thus freckles arise. In people with albinism no skin pigmentation occurs due to a defect of melanin metabolism. Uneven areas of depigmentation are in patients with vitiligo because of the immunological destruction of melanocytes. These and other groups of people who do not produce to quickly and fully capable of melanin, are particularly vulnerable to sun damage. Prevention Avoiding the sun, wearing protective clothing and applying sunscreen help to minimize UV ??exposure. Avoiding the sun sunburn and chronic effects of sunlight can be prevented by simple precautions. These precautions are recommended for people of all skin types, especially those who are fair-skinned and easily get sunburned. The exposure to the bright midday sun and other circumstances with strong ultraviolet light (overview of the effects of sunlight: ultraviolet (UV) radiation) should be minimized (30 minutes or less), even people with darker skin. In moderate temperature zones, the intensity of UV radiation before 10 am and in the afternoon after 3 clock is lower because more sunburn-causing wavelengths are filtered out. Fog and clouds reduce the risk not essential, and the risk is increased at high altitudes and low latitudes (z. B. at the equator). Although sun exposure helps to generate vitamin D, most experts recommend a reasonable vitamin D levels if necessary by taking supplements rather than conscious exposure to sunlight safely stellen.Schutzkleidung The exposure of the skin to UV radiation can by wearing protective coverings such as hats, shirts, pants and sunglasses are minimized. Tightly woven fabrics block the sun better than loosely woven. Commercially also special clothing is available with a high sun protection. This type of clothing (UPF) with UV protection factor followed by a number is provided that indicates the degree of protection (similar to the labeling of sunscreen). Wide-brimmed hats protect the face, ears and neck, but these areas still need additional protection by topical sunscreens. The regular wearing of UV-absorbing, anatomically shaped sunglasses helps protect the eyes and Augenlider.Sonnenschutzmittel sunscreens protect the skin from sunburn and chronic sun damage by absorbing the UV rays of the sun or reflect. Older sunscreens tended to filter only UVB light, but now filter most newer sunscreens also effective UVA light and are labeled "broad spectrum" provided. In the US, the FDA classifies sunscreens on their sun protection factor (SPF) a: the higher the number, the greater the protection. However, the SPF only indicates protection against UVB rays. For UVA rays no such scale exists. People should use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of 50 or higher generally. Sunscreens are available in many dosage forms, such as creams, gels, foams, sprays and sticks. Self not protect especially true prior to UV exposure. Most sunscreen products contain several substances that act as chemical protective shields, by absorbing the light or form a physical protective film which reflects the light or scattered. The components of sunscreens that absorb UV-B radiation, include cinnamates, salicylates and PABA derivatives. Benzophenones are often used for the protection of UVB and UVA shortwave. Avobenzone, and "ecamsule" filters in the UVA range and can be added to provide further UVA protection. Other sunscreens, called sunblocks, contain zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, which physically reflect both UVB and UVA rays (and they keep on this way from reaching the skin). Although they were very white and sticky in the past in applying, micronized formulas of these products have increased their cosmetic acceptability significantly. Sunscreen failure is common and most often results from the fact that the application insufficiently or too late (best should sunscreen 30 to be applied before exposure min) takes place, that they are not re-applied after swimming or sports or forgotten that she every 2 to 3 hours apply during sun exposure. Allergic and photo-allergic reactions to sunscreens can occur and must be distinguished from other photosensitive rashes. Often used in diagnosing a Patch or photopatch test with the ingredients of the sunscreen is required. This test is usually done by dermatologists with expertise in allergic contact dermatitis.

Health Life Media Team

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