The term temporomandibular dysfunction is a general term for disorders that lead to dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint, or pain in the jaw and face that often occur in or around the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) around, with the participation of the masticatory muscles and other muscles of the head and neck, the fascia or both components. It only speaks of TMD when pain or restriction of movement are so pronounced that the patient requires medical treatment.
(Dislocation of the mandible, temporal bone fractures and jaw tumors.) The term temporomandibular dysfunction is a general term for disorders that lead to dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint, or pain in the jaw and face that often occur in or around the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) around, with the participation the muscles of mastication and other muscles of the head and neck, the fascia or both components. It only speaks of TMD when pain or restriction of movement are so pronounced that the patient requires medical treatment. Temporomandibular disorders are multifactorial usually on the origin of her, but most are related to problems of muscles or joints. Internal disorders of the TMJ cause a disturbed movement of the mandibular condyle in the fossa or the cartilaginous articular (The TMJ.). This disc, which is shaped like a mature erythrocyte, serves as a cushion between the bone surfaces. Among the causes for this impaired movement include clenching and grinding of the teeth, trauma, systemic diseases (eg. As arthritis), local or systemic infection and malocclusion and missing teeth. Even stubborn gum chewing can lead to symptoms. The temporomandibular joint. The joint is formed by the mandibular condyle and the glenoid fossa of the temporal bone; a cartilaginous articular function as a cushion between the joint surfaces. Diagnosis of TMJ disorders must be distinguished from the many other diseases that can mimic them from the symptoms forth (see table: Some complaints that temporomandibular disorders are similar). A finger pressure on the joint with an open mouth increased pain indicates a disease of the temporomandibular joint. Some complaints, temporomandibular disorders are similar to symptoms state headache sinusitis Arteriitis tension, migraine and cluster headaches bruxism (caused headaches due to muscle strain) Referred pain originating from neck disorders pain Postherpetic neuralgia reflex sympathetic dystrophy or traumatic neuroma after head or neck surgery head and neck trauma toothache trigeminal neuralgia Schmer zen, of hearing accompanied obstruction of the ear canal or Eustachian tubes otitis media arthritis pain in the head, neck and other areas of the body fibromyalgia syndrome generalized myofascial pain pain, numbness intracranial aneurysm Metastatic tumors pain radiating whiplash in the TMJ region, the muscles or cervical impaired pain worse When the patient swallows or head rotates cervical spine or muscle disorders Adler syndrome (calcified styloid process) glossopharyngeal neuralgia Subacute thyroiditis trismus compression fracture of the zygomatic arch infection osteochondroma of koronoiden extension pericoronitis Patients are asked to describe the pain and painful regions provide , The muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoid) and the cervical and occipital muscles are palpated to general sensitivity and trigger points (points that can radiate pain to other regions). Patients are followed as they open the mouth as wide as possible without discomfort. If the patient to open his mouth and close while the contact points of the upper and lower central incisors (which are normally located in the center line) are against a vertically held ruler compared mandibular midline deviates typically to aching side out. Palpation and auscultation of the joint during the opening and closing movement can result in sensitivity, capturing, Click crepitus or crackling. The movement of the condyle can be palpated at the best, by placing the little finger in the external auditory meatus and a gentle pressure is applied to the front, while the patient move the jaw. The medium-sized patient can open the mouth (measured between the upper and lower central incisors) at least 40 mm. To determine differences in the size of the patient, a patient should be able to get three fingers (index, middle, ring finger) one above the other in the mouth up to the first joint.