Substance-related disorders include drugs that activate the reward system of the brain directly. The activation of the reward system typically causes feelings of pleasure; the induced specific, pleasant feelings vary widely, depending on the drug. These drugs are divided into 10 different classes, with different, if not entirely clear, pharmacological mechanisms. Among the classes of drugs include alcohol caffeine Cannabis hallucinogens (ZB LSD, phencyclidine, psilocybin) inhalants (Volatile hydrocarbons [e.g., as paint thinner, certain glues]), opioids (eg. As fentanyl, morphine, oxycodone) sedatives, hypnotics and anxiolytics (z. B. lorazepam, secobarbital) stimulants (eg., amphetamines, caffeine) Other tobacco (eg. B., anabolic steroids) This classification is not based on whether a drug legally (eg., alcohol, caffeine), illegal (z. B. hallucinogens), or available by prescription (e.g., morphine, lorazepam). Specific details of these substances and their effects are discussed elsewhere in the MSD Manual concerning. The term “drugs” is a legal and colloquial term. Originally, he was referring to drugs with narcotic effects (numbness or stupor), particularly opioids (eg. As opium, opium derivatives). However, the term is being used so inconsistently (eg. As the US government classifies the stimulant cocaine as a narcotic, a) that the term has little scientific or medical importance. Classification of substance-dependent diseases substance-related disorders are usually divided in Subszanzinduzierte diseases Substance Use Disorders Substance-induced disorders include the direct effects of a drug, which typically include the following intoxication withdrawal substance-induced mental disorders substance use disorders include pathological pattern of behavior in which the patient continues to use a substance, also significant problems due to the use occur. There may also be physiological phenomena, including changes in the circuitry of the brain. The most common terms used “addiction”, “abuse” and “dependence” are light and variable defined to be very useful in the systematic diagnosis; “Substance disorder” is more comprehensive and has less negative connotation. Medications in Class 10 differ in how likely it is to cause a substance abuse. The probability is referred to as drug loading and depends on a combination of factors, including route of administration, rate at which the drug passes through the blood-brain barrier and the reward pathway stimulates time effect until the onset of the ability tolerance and / or withdrawal symptoms to induce schedule drugs (scheduled drugs) In the US, the “Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970” requires from 1970 with subsequent changes in the pharmaceutical industry that it guarantees the physical integrity and results over certain types and classes of substances accurate records (controlled substances-s. Some examples of controlled substances *). On the basis of their abuse potential, its benefits for medical purposes and sufficient security for medical monitoring these controlled substances are divided into five classes. about how strong a substance needs to be monitored this classification decision. Class I: substances of this class have a high addiction load are not approved for medical applications and have no accepted safety. These substances may be used only for the approved by the government for research purposes. Classes II to IV: These substances have less and less addiction load in ascending order. They have well-defined medical uses. Prescriptions for substances of classes II-IV have to bear the license number of the doctor with the DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration, Agency for Drug Control). Class V: These substances have the least addiction load. Some substances of Class V are not available on prescription. The classifications can be regulated nationally. Some examples of controlled substances * interval Examples I † cathinone (khat) and methcathinone, GHB, heroin (and some other opioids), LSD, MDMA, psilocybin, synthetic cannabinoids II amphetamines, barbiturates (short duration), cocaine, hydrocodone (including combination of THAT CONDITION Hydrocodonprodukten), hydromorphone, methadone, methylphenidate, morphine and other strong opioid agonists, oxycodone, phencyclidine III Anabolsteroide, barbiturates (intermediate nd), buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine, dronabinol, ketamine, Paregoricum IV barbiturates (long duration), benzodiazepines, chloral hydrate, modafinil, meprobamate, pentazocine, propoxyphene, zolpidem V cough suppressants containing small amounts of codeine or pregabalin included * The Drug Enforcement Administration maintains a complete alphabetical list of controlled substances. * † Can not be prescribed. GHB = gamma-hydroxybutyrate, LSD = lysergic acid diethylamide; MDMA = methylenedioxymethamphetamine.


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