Pneumonia is an acute inflammation caused by infections of the lungs. The diagnosis is usually made (n. D. Ed .: auscultation or) the basis of a chest X-ray image and clinical findings. Causes, symptoms, treatment, preventive measures and prognosis differ depending on whether the infection is bacterial, viral, caused by fungi or parasites; whether outpatient, was acquired in a hospital or other health care facilities; and whether the patient is immunocompetent or -supprimiert.

Pneumonia is an acute inflammation caused by infections of the lungs. The diagnosis is usually made (n. D. Ed .: auscultation or) the basis of a chest X-ray image and clinical findings. Causes, symptoms, treatment, preventive measures and prognosis differ depending on whether the infection is bacterial, viral, caused by fungi or parasites; whether outpatient, was acquired in a hospital or other health care facilities; and whether the patient is immunocompetent or -supprimiert.

(Pneumonia in newborns.) Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lungs caused by infections. The diagnosis is usually made (n. D. Ed .: auscultation or) the basis of a chest X-ray image and clinical findings. Causes, symptoms, treatment, preventive measures and prognosis differ depending on whether the infection is bacterial, viral, caused by fungi or parasites; whether outpatient, was acquired in a hospital or other health care facilities; and whether the patient is immunocompetent or -supprimiert. Approximately 2-3 million Americans suffer each year from pneumonia, about 60,000 die from it. In the US, pneumonia along with influenza, the eight leading cause of death and the most common infection that leads to death. Pneumonia are the most common hospital-acquired lethal infections and the leading cause of death at all in developing countries. The most common cause of pneumonia in adults> 30 years bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen in all age groups, in all places of infection and in all geographic regions. Nevertheless, all types of pathogens, from viruses to parasites trigger pneumonia. Airways and lungs are constantly exposed to pathogens from the environment; the upper airways and especially the oropharynx are populated with a so-called “normal resident flora”. Microaspiration these pathogens from the upper respiratory tract is a common phenomenon, but lung defense mechanisms are easily cope with these normally. , Pneumonia develops when defense mechanisms are impaired Macroaspiration leads to a large inoculum of bacteria that overwhelm the normal host defenses. A particularly virulent pathogen is introduced occasion arises infection if pathogens through the bloodstream to the lungs or by adjacent spread of the chest wall or mediastinum. The defense of the upper airway consists of IgA in saliva, proteases and lysozymes; produced by the resident flora growth inhibitors; and fibronectin, which lines the mucous membranes and prevents adherence. Non-specific defense mechanisms of the lower respiratory tract include cough, airway mucociliary clearance and the angled anatomy, is prevented by the infections in the air spaces. Among the specific defense mechanisms of the lower airways include a wide range of pathogen immune mechanisms, including IgA and IgG opsonization, antimicrobial peptides, anti-inflammatory properties of the surfactant, phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages and T-cell mediated immune responses. These mechanisms most people protect against infections. Numerous diseases alter the normal resident flora (eg. As systemic diseases, malnutrition, hospital or nursing home stays and taking antibiotics) or damage the defense mechanisms (eg. As cigarette smoke, nasogastric or endotracheal intubation). Pathogens, which then reached airspaces, may reproduce and cause pneumonia. At <50% of patients specific, the pneumonia-causing pathogens can not be detected even with extensive diagnostic tests, mainly because of the limit of the available diagnostic tests. But because the pathogens and results tend to be similar in patients with similar features and similar risk factors, pneumonia can be categorized as Community-acquired (Community-acquired pneumonia) acquired in the hospital (including ventilator-acquired and postoperative pneumonia acquired in hospital pneumonia ) hospital Conditional (including nursing home acquired pneumonia- hospital-related pneumonia) in immunocompromised patients occurring (pneumonia in immunocompromised patients), including patients with HIV infection (Pneumocystis jirovecii conjunctivitis and pneumonia) aspiration pneumonia which occurs when large amounts of secretions from the upper respiratory tract or stomach secretions in reach the lung (aspiration pneumonitis and conjunctivitis and pneumonia) These categorizations allow an empirical selection of the treatment. The term interstitial pneumonia refers to a wide variety of diseases of various unknown and sometimes causes, which are characterized by interstitial inflammation and fibrosis (overview of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia).

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