The nephritic syndrome is characterized by hematuria, different levels of proteinuria, usually dysmorphic red blood cells and red blood cell casts often at microscopic examination of urine sediment. Often the following signs are also available ? 1: edema, hypertension, increased serum creatinine and oliguria. The nephritic syndrome has both primary and secondary causes. Diagnosis is based on history and physical examination and sometimes by renal biopsy. Treatment and prognosis varies depending on the cause.

The nephritic syndrome is the manifestation of glomerular inflammation (glomerulonephritis [GN]) and comes at any age before. The causes vary depending on age (see table: Glomerular disorders by age and manifestations), and the emergence of mechanisms differ depending on the cause. The syndrome may be

The nephritic syndrome is characterized by hematuria, different levels of proteinuria, usually dysmorphic red blood cells and red blood cell casts often at microscopic examination of urine sediment. Often the following signs are also available ? 1: edema, hypertension, increased serum creatinine and oliguria. The nephritic syndrome has both primary and secondary causes. Diagnosis is based on history and physical examination and sometimes by renal biopsy. Treatment and prognosis varies depending on the cause. The nephritic syndrome is the manifestation of glomerular inflammation (glomerulonephritis [GN]) and comes at any age before. The causes vary depending on age (see table: Glomerular disorders by age and manifestations), and the emergence of mechanisms differ depending on the cause. The syndrome may be acute (serum creatinine rises over many weeks or less) Chronic (renal insufficiency may develop over years) Nephritic syndrome can be primary (idiopathic) Secondary causes of glomerulonephritis Type Examples Primary form of idiopathic fibrillary and immunotaktoide GN Idiopathic crescentic GN IgA nephropathy Membranoproliferative GN Secondary Bacterial * Group A beta streptococcal infection mycoplasma infection with Neisseria meningitidis infection with Salmonella typhi staphylococcal infections (in particular, bacterial endocarditis) infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae visceral abscesses (due to Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas, Proteus, Klebsiella, or Clostridium sp) sepsis parasitic * loiasis malaria (Plasmodium falciparum by or P. malariae), schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni by) * Viral infection with coxsackievirus infection with cytomegalovirus infection m it Epstein-Barr virus Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Herpes zoster Measles Mumps Varicella Other infectious and post-infectious causes of fungal infections (due to Candida albicans or Coccidioides immitis) Rickettsieninfektion connective tissue eosinophils granulomatosis Microscopic with polyangiitis granulomatosis with polyangiitis IgA-associated vasculitis polyangiitis polyarteritis nodosa SLE Drug-induced disease SLE (rare due to hydralazine or procainamide) hemolytic uremic syndrome (due to quinine, cisplatin, gemcitabine or mitomycin C) Hematologic dyscrasias Mixed IgG IgM cryoglobulinemia serum sickness Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome Glomerulumbasalmembrane disease Goodpasture’s syndrome Hereditary diseases Hereditary nephritis thin basement membrane * Infectious and post-infectious causes. GN = glomerulonephritis. The acute glomerulonephritis post-infectious GN is the prototype of acute GN, but this condition can also be caused by other Glomerulopathies and systemic diseases such as connective tissue disorders and hematologic dyscrasias (see Table: Causes of glomerulonephritis). The rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is another acute GN. Chronic glomerulonephritis The appearance of chronic GN similar to the acute GN, but develops slowly and can cause weak signs of to moderate proteinuria. Examples include IgA nephropathy Hereditary nephritis thin basement membrane

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