For normal functioning the autonomous and voluntary nervous system must be intact, and the muscles of the urinary tract has to work. Normally the bladder filling stimulates stretch receptors in the bladder wall, to the sensory cortex send pulses over the spinal nerves and the spinal canal S2 to S4, where the urge to urinate, is felt. The minimum volume that triggers the urge to urinate, is individually different. However, the external urinary sphincter is under voluntary control and is usually contracted until that person decides to leave the water.

Micturition disorders affect both the storage and emptying of urine because both are controlled by the same neural and Harntraktmechanismen. Consequence of a disorder is incontinence or urinary retention. For normal functioning the autonomous and voluntary nervous system must be intact, and the muscles of the urinary tract has to work. Normally the bladder filling stimulates stretch receptors in the bladder wall, to the sensory cortex send pulses over the spinal nerves and the spinal canal S2 to S4, where the urge to urinate, is felt. The minimum volume that triggers the urge to urinate, is individually different. However, the external urinary sphincter is under voluntary control and is usually contracted until that person decides to leave the water. Moreover, the Miktionskontrollzentrum helps in the frontal lobe in the control of urination. When decision to get water, arbitrary signals in the motor cortex initiate the micturition. These pulses are transmitted in the pontine micturition center, which coordinates the simultaneous signals to the contraction of bladder smooth muscle (via parasympathetic cholinergic nerve fibers), and to relax the internal sphincter (bladder sphincter) via ?-sympathetic nerve fibers as well as the skeletal muscle in the external sphincter and the pelvic floor ( normal urination occurs when the bladder contraction is coordinated with the relaxation of the urethral sphincter.) in addition, require continence and normal micturition, normal cognitive skills, including motivation, mobility, access to a toilet and manual dexterity. Disorders or dysfunction of individual components involved in the micturition can lead to incontinence or urinary retention. Normal urination occurs when the bladder contraction is coordinated with the relaxation of the urethral sphincter. The CNS inhibits dump up at the appropriate time and coordinates and facilitates the momentum of the lower urinary tract to start the evacuation and to bring to an end. The sympathetic nervous system to contract the smooth muscles of the sphincter. The parasympathetic nervous system is contracted by the Blasendetrusormuskel cholinergic fibers. The somatic nervous system contracts the striated muscles of the sphincter by cholinergic fibers of the pudendal nerve. (Adapted from DuBeau CE, Resnick NM with Massachusetts Department of Health EDUCATE project staff: Urinary Incontinence in the Older Adult: An Annotated Speaker / Teacher Kit, 1993 with permission of the authors used).

Health Life Media Team

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