Viral infections often take place with the participation of the upper respiratory tract. Although these infections can be classified according to the causative virus (z. B. Influenza), they are usually classified according to the clinical syndrome (z. B. colds, bronchiolitis, croup). Although specific pathogens usually cause characteristic clinical manifestations (. Eg causing rhinoviruses typically colds and “respiratory syncytial virus” [RSV] bronchiolitis), each exciter is (also capable of causing many of the viral respiratory syndrome see table: causes of common viral repiratorischen Syndrome).

(Bronchiolitis, Professional.heading on page Krupp and Professional.heading on page overview of pneumonia (pneumonia).) Viral infections often take place with the participation of the upper respiratory tract. Although these infections can be classified according to the causative virus (z. B. Influenza), they are usually classified according to the clinical syndrome (z. B. colds, bronchiolitis, croup). Although specific pathogens usually cause characteristic clinical manifestations (. Eg causing rhinoviruses typically colds and “respiratory syncytial virus” [RSV] bronchiolitis), each exciter is (also capable of causing many of the viral respiratory syndrome see table: causes of common viral repiratorischen Syndrome). Causes of common viral repiratorischen Syndrome Syndrome Common causes Less common causes bronchiolitis RSV influenza viruses parainfluenza viruses, adenoviruses rhinoviruses flu infection rhinoviruses coronaviruses influenza viruses Parainfluenza viruses Enteroviruses adenoviruses Humane metapneumoviruses RSV Krupp parainfluenza viruses Influenza viruses RSV influenza-like illness influenza virus parainfluenza viruses, adenoviruses Pneumonia Influenza viruses RSV, adenoviruses parainfluenza viruses enteroviruses Human rhinoviruses metapneumoviruses coronaviruses RSV = respiratory syncytial virus. The severity of viral respiratory diseases varies, heavier disease rather come before in the elderly and infants. The morbidity can be directly based on the viral infection or indirectly, due to exacerbation of underlying cardiopulmonary disease or a bacterial super-infection of the lungs, sinuses or the middle ear. Diagnosis Detection of viral pathogens by PCR, cell culture or serologic testing is usually too slow to be useful for the treatment of patients, but is useful for epidemiological surveillance (d. H. Identification and determination of the outbreak cause). More rapid diagnostic tests available for influenza and RSV are available, but the benefits of these tests for routine care is unclear. They should be applied in situations where a pathogen diagnosis affects the clinical treatment. Decisions about therapy management usually based on clinical and epidemiological data. Treatment Treatment of viral respiratory infections is usually supportive. Antibacterial agents are ineffective against viral pathogens, and prophylaxis against secondary bacterial infections is not recommended. Antibiotics should only be given when developing secondary bacterial infections. In patients with chronic lung diseases, antibiotics may be given less restrictive. Aspirin should not be used in patients who are ?18 years and have respiratory tract infections because the Reye’s syndrome is a risk. Some patients also suffer for weeks on the resolution of infections of the upper respiratory tract cough; these symptoms may improve by inhalation of bronchodilator effective drugs or corticosteroids. In some cases antiviral substances are useful. Amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir are effective for influenza. Ribavirin, a guanosine analog that inhibits the replication of many RNA and DNA viruses can be considered in severely immunocompromised patients with RSV-related infectious lower respiratory tract. Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody to RSV fusion protein is used to prevent RSV infection in certain infants at high risk.

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