Conjunctivitis typically resulting from infection, allergy or irritation. Symptoms are conjunctival hyperemia and Augensekretion and – depending on the etiology – itching or discomfort. The diagnosis is made clinically, sometimes cultures are indicated. The therapy is based on the etiology and may be local antibiotics, antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers and corticosteroids include.

In an infectious conjunctivitis is most commonly a viral conjunctivitis or bacterial conjunctivitis, and it is contagious. Rarely, mixed or non-identifiable pathogens can be detected. Numerous allergens can cause allergic conjunctivitis. A non-allergic conjunctival irritation can be caused by strong ultraviolet light of welding equipment, sunlamps and reflections from snow by foreign objects, wind, dust, smoke, fumes, chemical vapors and other forms of air pollution.

Conjunctivitis typically resulting from infection, allergy or irritation. Symptoms are conjunctival hyperemia and Augensekretion and – depending on the etiology – itching or discomfort. The diagnosis is made clinically, sometimes cultures are indicated. The therapy is based on the etiology and may be local antibiotics, antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers and corticosteroids include. In an infectious conjunctivitis is most commonly a viral conjunctivitis or bacterial conjunctivitis, and it is contagious. Rarely, mixed or non-identifiable pathogens can be detected. Numerous allergens can cause allergic conjunctivitis. A non-allergic conjunctival irritation can be caused by strong ultraviolet light of welding equipment, sunlamps and reflections from snow by foreign objects, wind, dust, smoke, fumes, chemical vapors and other forms of air pollution. Conjunctivitis is typically acute, but both infectious and allergic forms can be chronic. Among the diseases that cause chronic conjunctivitis include ectropion, entropion, blepharitis, and chronic dacryocystitis. Symptoms and complaints Each ignition source can cause watery eyes or discharge and diffuse conjunctival vasodilation. The secretion can cause the eyes crust overnight. Thick secretions can cause blurred vision, but the vision should be restored once the eye has been cleaned by secretions. Itching and watery discharge predominate in allergic conjunctivitis. Also chemosis and papillary hyperplasia are signs of allergic conjunctivitis. Irritation or foreign body sensation, photophobia and discharge speak for an infectious viral conjunctivitis; purulent discharge suggests bacterial conjunctivitis. Severe eye pain is an indication of a scleritis. Diagnosis Clinical evaluation Sometimes bacterial culture Usually, the diagnosis of conjunctivitis is provided by a history and examination (see table: Distinguishing features of acute conjunctivitis), usually slit-lamp examination with fluorescein staining of the cornea and in cases of suspected glaucoma involves the measurement of intraocular pressure. In order to avoid transmission to other patients and the staff is particularly careful disinfection of instruments that touch the eye, after the examination of patients with possible conjunctivitis of extreme importance. Other diseases can cause a red eye. A deep sense of pain in the affected eye when light is directed into the unaffected eye (true photophobia) does not occur in uncomplicated conjunctivitis and suggests a disease of the cornea or the anterior uvea. A circum-corneal conjunctival hyperemia (sometimes called ciliary injection described) is caused by advanced, thin, straight, deep vessels that emit 1-3 mm from the limbus, without significant hyperemia of the bulbar conjunctiva and tarsal. A ciliary injection occurs in uveitis, acute glaucoma and some types of keratitis (corneal diseases), but not in uncomplicated conjunctivitis. Tips and risks should be assumed another cause of red eye (z. B. uveitis, glaucoma, keratitis), if patients have a real photophobia, a loss of vision or ciliary injection, and do not show a remarkably high degree of tearing. On the cause of the conjunctivitis is indicated by the clinical findings. In severe symptoms, patients with immunodeficiency, very vulnerable eyes (z. B. after a corneal transplant, in exophthalmos due to Graves’ ophthalmopathy) and treatment failure but cultures are indicated. The clinical differentiation between viral and bacterial infectious conjunctivitis is not very precise. If the medical history and examination can be a viral conjunctivitis, however, strongly suggest withholding antibiotics is initially appropriate. Antibiotics may be prescribed later if the clinical picture changes, or if symptoms persist. Distinguishing features of acute conjunctivitis etiology discharge / cell type lid edema node involvement itching Bacterial Purulent / polymorphonuclear leukocytes Moderate Normally no No itching Viral clear / minimal mononuclear cells often present No itching Allergic clear, slimy, tough / eosinophils Moderate to severe None Mild to intense therapy prevent the spread treating the symptoms Most infectious conjunctivitis are very contagious and may spread droplets pathogen reservoirs of (in bathrooms) and hand-to-eye inoculation. To avoid the transmission of infections, doctors must use hand sanitizer or her hands properly wash (fully foamed hands, scrubbing the hands for at least 20 seconds, rinse well and then turn off the water with a paper towel) disinfect and instruments for the investigation of patients , Patients should wash hand sanitizers and / or their hands thoroughly if they touch their eyes or contact with nasal secretions had, avoid touching the uninfected eye, do not share towels and pillows with others and avoid swimming in pools. The secretions should be removed from the eyes and no eye bandage is applied. Small children should stay at home, so that the spread of conjunctivitis is avoided in kindergarten or school. Cold washcloths that are placed on the eyes may help relieve local burning and itching. Antimicrobial substances are used for certain infections. Summary An conjunctivitis typically resulting from infection, allergy or irritation. An infectious Konjunktivitits is highly contagious in general. Typical findings are redness (without ciliary injection) and vaginal discharge without significant pain or loss of vision. The diagnosis is made clinically in general. The therapy includes measures to prevent spread as well as treatment of the cause (sometimes with antimicrobial substances).

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