Clostridia are spore-forming Gram-positive rods, which are widespread in dust, soil and on plants as well as physiological flora of the digestive tract of mammals.

Nearly 100 Clostridium sp. were identified, but only 25 to 30 often lead to disease in animals and humans.

Clostridia are spore-forming Gram-positive rods, which are widespread in dust, soil and on plants as well as physiological flora of the digestive tract of mammals. Nearly 100 Clostridium sp. were identified, but only 25 to 30 often lead to disease in animals and humans. Pathophysiology pathogens species form tissue-destructive and Neuroexotoxine that are responsible for the manifestations of the disease. Clostridia may be pathogenic in low O2 tension and low pH. Such anaerobic environment may develop in ischemic or devitalized tissue as such. As occurs in a primary arterial insufficiency, as well as after severe penetrating or blunt trauma. The deeper and more severe the wound is, the more susceptible the patient for a Clostridieninfektion, especially if possibly only minimal contamination of the wound with foreign material present. A Clostridieninfektion can also occur after injection of street drugs. After eating homemade preserves can cause a severe non-infectious disease by formed by clostridial toxins. caused by clostridial diseases diseases caused by clostridia, (see Table: Certain health conditions that are assoziert with Clostridium) include botulism (by C. botulinum) C. difficile-induced colitis gastroenteritis soft tissue infections tetanus (by C. tetani) Clostridium induced necrotic enteritis (by C. perfringens type C) Neutropenic enterocolitis (through C. septicum) health conditions that are assoziert with Clostridium toxin agents state Soft tissue infection cellulite with crepitation, myositis, clostridial myonecrosis, hemolysis C. perfringens ?-toxin (phospholipase C), ? toxin, other gas gangrene, tissue necrosis, hemolysis C. septicum ?-toxin ?-toxin, hyaluronidase ? toxin, septicolysin ? toxin bowel disease food poisoning C. perfringens enterotoxin type A Enteritis necroticans C. perfringens type C ?-toxin antibiotic-associated colitis, C. difficile toxin A or B or C. difficile binary toxin (CDT) necrotizing enterocolitis C. septicum, others unknown, possibly ?-toxin Colorectal carcinomas C. septicum – abdominal infections: Ch olezystitis, peritonitis ruptured appendix, bowel perforation C. perfringens, C. ramosum, many other ?-toxin * Neurological Syndrome Tetanus C. tetani Tetanospasmin botulism C. botulinum toxins botulinal AH * ?-toxin is produced by C. perfringens type C, but most these infections are caused by C. perfringens type A, no ?-toxin to produce. The most common Clostridieninfektion is a lighter, self-limiting gastroenteritis, which is usually caused by C. perfringens type A. Heavy Clostridienerkrankungen relatively rare occurrence, but can be fatal. Abdominal diseases such. B. cholecystitis, peritonitis, perforated appendix and bowel perforation, can with a stake of C. perfringens, C. ramosum, and accompanied by many others. C. perfringens can trigger muscle necrosis and soft tissue infection, which is characterized by cellulite with crepitation, myositis, and clostridial myonecrosis. Skin and tissue necrosis can be caused by bloodborne C. septicum of the colon. Clostridia also occur as part of a mixed flora with frequently slight wound infection in appearance; their etiological role in such infections is unclear. The number nosocomial acquired Clostridium increases, particularly in post-operative and immunocompromised patients. A heavy Clostridiensepsis can complicate intestinal perforation and obstruction.

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