Overview Intestinal Protozoa

Intestinal protozoa are fecal-oral spread, so infections in areas with inadequate sanitation and inadequate water treatment are widespread. They also occur in the United States often there on where occur (in day care for. B.) in poor hygienic conditions heaped patients with fecal incontinence (z. B. in psychiatric institutions) or persons with inadequate bowel control. Occasionally, large-borne drinking water outbreaks of intestinal protozoa infection in the United States occurred (eg. As the massive transmitted by drinking water outbreak of Cryptosporidium in Milwaukee in 1993). Some gastrointestinal protozoa are sexually transmitted, especially when it comes to oral-anal contact, and various species of protozoa cause in AIDS patients severe opportunistic infections.

The major intestinal protozoa are Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia intestinalis (lamblia), Cystoisospora (Isospora) belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis and members of the genus microsporidia. In the intestine, many pathogenic parasites and nonpathogenic kommensalische pathogens may be present at the same time. Nichtintestinale protozoa are covered in other chapters: For systemic protozoa (malaria, babesiosis, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis) Extraintestinal protozoa; nematode infections nematodes (round worms); to infection with leeches trematodes (flukes) and infection with tapeworms cestodes (tapeworms). Intestinal protozoa are fecal-oral spread, so infections in areas with inadequate sanitation and inadequate water treatment are widespread. They also occur in the United States often there on where occur (in day care for. B.) in poor hygienic conditions heaped patients with fecal incontinence (z. B. in psychiatric institutions) or persons with inadequate bowel control. Occasionally, large-borne drinking water outbreaks of intestinal protozoa infection in the United States occurred (eg. As the massive transmitted by drinking water outbreak of Cryptosporidium in Milwaukee in 1993). Some gastrointestinal protozoa are sexually transmitted, especially when it comes to oral-anal contact, and various species of protozoa cause in AIDS patients severe opportunistic infections. Diagnosis to make a diagnosis based on symptoms and physical findings is difficult. A stool test for parasites antigens or microscopic examination of the stool for cysts or pathogen is necessary. Fecal antigen tests that are sensitive and specific for G. intestinalis Cryptosporidium sp E. histolytica A Microscopic diagnosis may require multiple samples, enrichment techniques and special stains; Therefore, the laboratory should be informed which one or more pathogens are suspected. Some patients require semi-invasive diagnostic techniques such as endoscopic biopsy (see table: Notes on extraction, processing, storage and shipment of specimens for microscopic diagnosis of parasitic infections). Molecular diagnostics using PCR-based testing represents some enteric protozoa available and is promising for the future.

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